Letter D - Aviation Glossary of Terms, Acronyms & Definitions | Aircraft Systems

Letter D - Aviation Glossary of Terms, Acronyms & Definitions

Dacron. The registered trade name for a cloth woven from polyester fibers.

Damped oscillation. Oscillation whose amplitude decreases with time.

Data bus. A wire or group of wires that are used to move data within a computer system.

Data. The input for computer processing in the form of numerical information that represents characters or analog quantities.

Database. A body of information that is available on any particular subject.

Dataplate performance. The performance specifications of a turbine engine observed and recorded by the engine manufacturer or overhauler and recorded on the engine dataplate. This data includes the engine speed at which a specified EPR is attained. When trimming the engine, the technician uses this data as the goal.

Dataplate specifications. Specification of each gas turbine engine determined in the manufacturer’s test cell when the engine was calibrated. This data includes the engine serial number with the EPR that produced a specific RPM. The technician refers to this information when trimming the engine.

DC. Direct current. Electrical current in which the electrons always flow in the same direction.

Deaerator. A component in a turbine engine lubrication system that removes air from the scavenged oil before it is returned to the tank.

Debooster valve. A valve in a power brake system between the power brake control valve and the wheel cylinder. This valve lowers the pressure of the fluid going to the brake and increases its volume. A debooster valve increases the smoothness of brake application and aids in rapid release of the brakes.

Decay. The breakdown of the structure of wood fibers. Wood that shows any indication of decay must be rejected for use in aircraft structure.

Deceleration. The amount the velocity of an object, measured in feet per second, is decreased by a force during each second it is acted upon by that force. Deceleration is usually expressed in terms of feet per second, per second (fps²).

Deciduous. A type of tree that sheds its foliage at the end of the growing season. Hardwoods come from deciduous trees.

Decomposition. The breakdown of the structure of wood fibers. Wood that shows any indication of decay must be rejected for use in aircraft structure.

Dedicated computer. A small digital computer, often built into an instrument or control device that contains a built-in program that causes it to perform a specific function.

Deep-vacuum pump. A vacuum pump capable of removing almost all of the air from a refrigeration system. A deep-vacuum pump can reduce the pressure inside the system to a few microns of pressure.

Deflator cap. A cap for a tire, strut, or accumulator air valve that, when screwed onto the valve, depresses the valve stem and allows the air to escape safely through a hole in the side of the cap.

DeHaviland DH-4. An English designed observation airplane built in large quantities in the united States during World War I. After the war, surplus DH-4s were used for carrying the U.S. Mail.

Deicer system. A system that removes ice after it has formed on an aircraft.

Deicing. The removal of ice that has formed on a surface.

Delamination. The separation of the layers of a laminated material.

Delivery air duct check valve. An isolation valve at the discharge side of the air turbine that prevents the loss of pressurization through a disengaged cabin air compressor.

Delta airplane. An airplane with a triangular-shaped wing. This wing has an extreme amount of sweepback on its leading edge, and a trailing edge that is almost perpendicular to the longitudinal axis of the airplane.

Delta connection (electrical connection). A method of connecting three electrical coils into a ring or, as they are drawn on a schematic diagram as a triangle, a delta (D).

Denier. A measure of the fineness of the yarns in a fabric.

Density altitude. The altitude in standard air at which the density is the same as that of the existing air.

Density ratio (σ). The ratio of the density of the air at a given altitude to the density of the air at sea level under standard conditions.

Derated (electrical specification). Reduction in the rated voltage or current of an electrical component. Derating is done to extend the life or reliability of the device.

Desiccant (air conditioning component). A drying agent used in an air conditioning system to remove water from the refrigerant. A desiccant is made of silica-gel or some similar material.

Detent. A spring-loaded pin or tab that enters a hole or groove when the device to which it is attached is in a certain position. Detents are used on a fuel valve to provide a positive means of identifying the fully on and fully off position of the valve.

Detergent oil. A type of mineral oil with metallic-ash-forming additives that protects the inside of an engine from sludge and varnish buildup. Used in automotive engines, it has proven unsuitable for use in aircraft engines.

Detonation. An uncontrolled explosion inside the cylinder of a reciprocating engine. Detonation occurs when the pressure and temperature of the fuel inside the cylinder exceeds the critical pressure and temperature of the fuel. Detonation may be caused by using fuel that has a lower octane rating or performance number than is specified for the engine.

Deviation error. An error in a magnetic compass caused by localized magnetic fields in the aircraft. Deviation error, which is different on each heading, is compensated by the technician “swinging” the compass. A compass must be compensated so the deviation error on any heading is no greater than 10 degrees.

Dewar bottle. A vessel designed to hold liquefied gases. It has double walls with the space between being evacuated to prevent the transfer of heat. The surfaces in the vacuum area are made heat-reflective.

Differential aileron travel. Aileron movement in which the upward-moving aileron deflects a greater distance than the one moving downward. The up aileron produces parasite drag to counteract the induced drag caused by the down aileron. Differential aileron travel is used to counteract adverse yaw.

Differential pressure. A single pressure that is the difference between two opposing pressures.

Differential-voltage reverse-current cutout. A type of reverse-current cutout switch used with heavy-duty electrical systems. This switch connects the generator to the electrical bus when the generator voltage is a specific amount higher than the battery voltage.

Diffuser. A component in a gas turbine engine that decreases the velocity of air flowing through it and increases its pressure.

Digital multimeter. An electrical test instrument that can be used to measure voltage, current, and resistance. The indication is in the form of a liquid crystal display in discrete numbers.

Digitized image. A modified image picked up by the miniature TV camera in the end of a fiber-optic probe. This image is converted into a digital electronic signal that eliminates unwanted portions of the viewed area and allows the desired image to be enhanced for a clearer view of the inside of a turbine engine.

Dihedral. The positive angle formed between the lateral axis of an airplane and a line that passes through the center of the wing or horizontal stabilizer. Dihedral increases the lateral stability of an airplane.

Diluter-demand oxygen system. A popular type of oxygen system in which the oxygen is metered to the mask, where it is diluted with cabin air by an airflow-metering aneroid assembly which regulates the amount of air allowed to dilute the oxygen on the basis of cabin altitude. The mixture of oxygen and air flows only when the wearer of the mask inhales. The percentage of oxygen in the air delivered to the mask is regulated, on the basis of altitude, by the regulator. A diluter-demand regulator has an emergency position which allows 100 percent oxygen to flow to the mask, by-passing the regulating mechanism.

Dipole antenna. A half wavelength, center-fed radio antenna. The length of each of the two arms is approximately one fourth of the wavelength of the center frequency for which the antenna is designed.

Dipstick. A gage, in the form of a thin metal rod, used to measure the level of liquid in a reservoir. The dipstick is pushed into the reservoir until it contacts a built-in stop; then it is removed and visually inspected. The level of liquid in the reservoir is indicated by the amount of the dipstick wet by the liquid.

Dirigible. A large, cigar-shaped, rigid, lighter-than-air flying machine. Dirigibles are made of a rigid truss structure covered with fabric. Gas bags inside the structure contain the lifting gas, which is either helium or hydrogen.

Disc area (helicopter specification). The total area swept by the blades of a helicopter main rotor.

Distributed pole stator winding. Alternator stator windings wound in a series of slots in the stator frame. A distributed pole stator is distinguished from a salient pole stator whose coils are wound around separate pole shoes that project inward from the field frame toward the rotor.

Distributor. A high-voltage selector switch that is gear-driven from the shaft of the rotating magnet in a magneto. The distributor rotor picks up the high voltage from the secondary winding of the coil and directs it to high-voltage terminals. From here, it is carried by high-tension ignition leads to the spark plugs.

Divergent duct. A duct that has an increased cross-sectional area in the direction of flow.

Divergent oscillation. Oscillation whose amplitude increases with time.

Diverging duct. A duct, or passage, whose cross-sectional area increases in the direction of fluid flow.

DME. Distance measuring equipment.

Dope proofing. The treatment of a structure to be covered with fabric to keep the solvents in the dope from softening the protective coating on the structure.

Dope roping. A condition of aircraft dope brushed onto a surface in such a way that it forms a stringy, uneven surface rather than flowing out smoothly.

Double-acting actuator (hydraulic system component). A linear actuator moved in both directions by fluid power.

Double-acting hand pump (hydraulic system component). A hand-operated fluid pump that moves fluid during both strokes of the pump handle.

Doubler. A piece of sheet metal used to strengthen and stiffen a repair in a sheet metal structure.

Downdraft carburetor. A carburetor that mounts on the top of a reciprocating engine. Air entering the engine flows downward through the carburetor.

Downtime. Any time during which an aircraft is out of commission and unable to be operated.

Downwash. Air forced down by aerodynamic action below and behind the wing of an airplane or the rotor of a helicopter. Aerodynamic lift is produced when the air is deflected downward. The upward force on the aircraft is the same as the downward force on the air.

Drag (helicopter rotor blade movement). Fore-and-aft movement of the tip of a helicopter rotor blade in its plane of rotation.

Drag wire. A structural wire inside a Pratt truss airplane wing between the spars. Drag wires run from the front spar inboard, to the rear spar at the next bay outboard. Drag wires oppose the forces that try to drag the wing backward.

Dragging brakes. Brakes that do not fully release when the brake pedal is released. The brakes are partially applied all the time, which causes excessive lining wear and heat.
Drill motor. An electric or pneumatic motor that drives a chuck that holds a twist drill. The best drill motors produce high torque, and their speed can be controlled.

Drip stick. A fuel quantity indicator used to measure the fuel level in the tank when the aircraft is on the ground. The drip stick is pulled down from the bottom of the tank until fuel drips from its opened end. This indicates that the top of the gauge inside the tank is at the level of the fuel. Note the number of inches read on the outside of the gauge at the point it contacts the bottom of the tank, and use a drip stick table to convert this measurement into gallons of fuel in the tank.

Droop. A progressive decrease in RPOM with load in a gas turbine engine whose speed is governed with a fly-weight-type governor in the fuel control. As the load increases, the pilot valve drops down to meter more fuel. The lower position of the valve decreases the compression of the speeder spring and allows the counterweights to assume an on-speed position at a lower rpm.

Dry air pump. An engine-driven air pump which used carbon vanes. Dry pumps do not use any lubrication, and the vanes are extremely susceptible to damage from the solid airborne particles. These pumps must be operated with filters in their inlet so they will take in only filtered air.

Dry ice. Solidified carbon dioxide. Dry ice sublimates, or changes from a solid directly into a gas, at a temperature of –110 °F (–78.5 °C).

Dry rot. Decomposition of wood fibers caused by fungi. Dry rot destroys all strength in the wood.

Dry-sump engine. An engine that carries its lubricating oil supply in a tank external to the engine.

Dual ignition. An ignition system of an aircraft reciprocating engine that has two of every critical unit, including two spark plugs in each cylinder. Dual ignition provides safety in the event of one system malfunctioning, but more important, igniting the fuel-air mixture inside the cylinder at two locations provides more efficient combustion of the fuel-air mixture in the cylinder.

Dual-spool gas turbine engine. An axial-flow turbine engine that has two compressors, each driven by its own stage or stages of turbines.

Duct heater. A thrust augmentation system, similar to an afterburner, where fuel is added to the fan-discharge air and burned.

Duct losses. A decrease in pressure of the air flowing into a gas turbine engine caused by friction.

Ductility. The property of a material that allows it to be drawn into a thin section without breaking.

Dummy load (electrical load). A noninductive, high-power, 50-ohm resistor that can be connected to a transmission line in place of the antenna. The transmitter can be operated into the dummy load without transmitting any signal.

Durability. A measure of engine life. Durability is usually measured in TBO hours.

Duralumin. The name for the original alloy of aluminum, magnesium, manganese, and copper. Duralumin is the same as the modern 2017 aluminum alloy.

Dutch roll. An undesirable, low-amplitude coupled oscillation about both the yaw and roll axes that affects many swept wing airplanes. Dutch roll is minimized by the use of a yaw damper.

Dutchman shears. A common name for compound-action sheet metal shears.

Duty cycle. A schedule that allows a device to operate for a given period of time, followed by a cooling down period before the device can be operated again.

Dwell chamber. A chamber in a turbine engine into which the scavenged oil is returned. Entrained air separates from the oil in the dwell chamber before it is picked up by the pressure pump.

Dynamic pressure (q). The pressure a moving fluid would have if it were stopped. Dynamic pressure is measured in pounds per square foot.

Dynamic stability. The stability that causes an aircraft to return to a condition of straight and level flight after it has been disturbed from this condition. When an aircraft is disturbed from the straight and level flight, its static stability starts it back in the correct direction; but it overshoots, and the corrective forces are applied in the opposite direction. The aircraft oscillates back and forth on both sides of the correct condition, with each oscillation smaller than the one before it. Dynamic stability is the decreasing of these restorative oscillations.

Dynamometer. A device used to measure the amount of torque being produced by an engine. The drive shaft of the engine is loaded with either an electric generator or a fluid pump, and the output of the generator or pump is measured and converted into units of torque. Torque at a specific rpm can be converted into brake horsepower.

Dyne. The unit of force that imparts an acceleration of one centimeter per second, per second to a mass of one gram. One dyne is equal to 2.248 ∙ 10-6 pounds.

ΔP (delta P). Differential pressure.