Aviation Glossary of Terms, Acronyms & Definitions - Letter I

Ice bridging. A spark plug failure that occurs when starting a reciprocating engine in extremely cold weather. When a cylinder fires, the fuel-air mixture is converted into carbon dioxide and water vapor. The water vapor condenses on the spark plug electrodes and forms ice that bridges the electrode gap and prevents the plug firing until the ice is melted. This normally requires removing the spark plugs from the engine.

ICAO. The International Civil Aeronautical Organization.

Icebox rivet. A solid rivet made of 2017 or 2024 aluminum alloy. These rivets are too hard to drive in the condition they are received from the factory, and must be heat-treated to soften them. They are heated in a furnace and then quenched in cold water. Immediately after quenching they are soft, but within a few hours at room temperature they become quite hard. The hardening can be delayed for several days by storing them in a subfreezing icebox and holding them at this low temperature until they are to be used.

IDG. Integrated drive generator. An AC generator installed on turbine engines. An IDG incorporates a brushless, three-phase AC generator and a constant-speed drive in a single component.

IFR. Instrument flight rules.

Igniter. The component in a turbine-engine ignition system that provides a high-energy spark for igniting the fuel-air mixture in the combustion chamber for starting.

IHP. Indicated horsepower. The theoretical horse-power a reciprocating engine develops.

IMEP. Indicated mean effective pressure. The average pressure existing inside the cylinder of a reciprocating engine during its power stroke.

Impulse coupling. A spring-loaded coupling between a magneto shaft and the drive gear inside the engine. When the engine is rotated for starting, the impulse coupling locks the magnet so it cannot turn. The spring in the coupling winds up as the crankshaft continues to turn, and when the piston is near top center, the coupling releases and spins the magnet, producing a hot and retarded spark.

Incandescent. Glowing because of intense heat.

Inch-pound. A measure of work accomplished when a force of 1 pound moves an object a distance of 1 inch.

Inconel. The registered trade name for an alloy of chromium, iron, and nickel. Inconel is similar to stainless steel, but cannot be hardened by heat treatment.

Indicated airspeed (IAS). The airspeed as shown on an airspeed indicator with no corrections applied.

Induced current. Electrical current produced in a conductor when it is moved through or crossed by a magnetic field.

Induced drag. Aerodynamic drag produced by an airfoil when it is producing lift. Induced drag is affected by the same factors that affect induced lift.

Induction time. The time allowed an epoxy or polyurethane material between its initial mixing and its application. This time allows the materials to begin their cure.

Inductive reactance. An opposition to the flow of AC or changing DC caused by inductance in the circuit. Inductive reactance, whose symbol is XL, causes a voltage drop, but it does not use power nor produce heat.

Inertia starter. A starter for a large reciprocating engine that uses energy stored in a rapidly spinning flywheel to turn the crankshaft.

Inertia. The tendency of a body to resist acceleration. A body at rest will remain at rest or a body in motion will stay in motion in a straight line unless acted on by an outside force.

Infrared radiation. Electromagnetic radiation whose wavelengths are longer than those of visible light.

Ingot. A large block of metal that was molded as it was poured from the furnace. Ingots are further processed into sheets, bars, tubes, or structural beams.

Inlet guide vanes. A set of stator vanes in front of the first stage of compression in a gas turbine engine. The inlet guide vanes deflect the air entering the compressor in the correct direction for optimum operation. Inlet guide vanes may be fixed, or their angle may be controlled hydraulically by fuel from the fuel control.

In-line engine. A reciprocating engine with all of the cylinders arranged in a straight line.

INS. Inertial Navigation System.

Inspection Authorization (IA). An authorization that may be issued to an experienced aviation maintenance technician who holds both an Airframe and Powerplant rating. It allows the holder to conduct annual inspections and to approve an aircraft or aircraft engine for return to service after a major repair or major alteration.

Integral fuel tank. An aircraft fuel tank made by sealing off part of the structure so fuel can be carried in the structure itself.

Intercooler. An air-to-air heat exchanger installed between a turbosupercharger and the carburetor. Intercoolers decrease the temperature of compressed air to prevent detonation.

Interference angle (poppet valve dimension). The difference between the valve seat and the valve face angles. Normally, the valve seats are ground with between 0.5º and 1º greater angle than the valve face. This allows the face to touch the seat with a line contact that provides the best sealing.

Interference drag. Parasite drag caused by air flowing over one portion of the airframe interfering with the smooth flow of air over another portion.

Interference fit. A type of fit used when assembling certain mechanical devices. The hole is made smaller than the part that fits into it. The material containing the hole is heated to expand the hole, and the part that fits into the hole is chilled to shrink it. The parts are assembled, and when they reach the same temperature their fit is so tight they will not loosen in service.

Intermittent-duty solenoid. A solenoid-type switch whose coil is designed for current to flow through it for only a short period of time. The coil will overheat if current flows through it too long.

Internal timing. The adjustment of the breaker points of a magneto so they will begin to open at the time the magnet is in its E-gap position.

Internal-combustion engine. A form of heat engine in which the fuel and air mixture is burned inside the engine to heat and expand the air so it can perform useful work.

Interpole. A field pole in a compound-wound DC generator used to minimize armature reaction. Interpoles are located between each of the regular field poles, and their coils are in series with the armature winding so all of the armature current flows through them. The magnetic field produced by the interpole coils cancels the distortion caused by the armature field and allows the brushed to remain in the neutral plane where there is no potential difference between the commutator segments. Keeping the brushes in the neutral plane minimizes sparking.

Inverted engine. An in-line or V-engine in which the cylinders are mounted below the crankshaft.

Iridium. A very hard, brittle, highly corrosion-resistant, whitish-yellow, metallic chemical element. Iridium is used for the fine-wire electrodes in spark plugs that must operate in engines using fuel with an exceptionally high lead content.

IRS. Inertial Reference System.

IRU. Inertial Reference Unit.

Isobaric mode. The mode of pressurization in which the cabin pressure is maintained at a constant value regardless of the outside air pressure.

Isogonic line. A line drawn on an aeronautical chart along which the angular difference between the magnetic and geographic north poles is the same.

Iso-octane. A hydrocarbon, C8H18, which has very high critical pressure and temperature. Iso-octane is used as the high reference for measuring the antidetonation characteristics of a fuel. iso-octane. An organic compound used as the high reference fuel for rating the antidetonation characteristics of aviation gasoline (CH3)2CHCH2C(CH3)3.

Isopropyl alcohol. A colorless liquid used in the manufacture of acetone and its derivatives and as a solvent and anti-icing agent.

Isothermal change. A physical change that takes place within a material in which heat energy is added to or taken from the material as needed to keep its temperature constant.

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