Aviation Glossary of Terms, Acronyms & Definitions - Letter F

FAA Form 337. The Major Repair and Alteration form that must be completed when an FAA-certificated aircraft or engine has been given a major repair or major alteration.

Face (propeller nomenclature). The flat surface of a propeller that strikes the air as the propeller rotates. The face of a propeller corresponds to the bottom of an airplane wing.

FADEC. Full-authority digital electronic control. A digital electronic fuel control for a gas turbine engine that is functioning during all engine operations, hence full authority. It includes the EEC (see EEC) and functions with the flight management computer. FADEC schedules the fuel to the nozzles in such a way that prevents overshooting power changes and over-temperature conditions. FADEC furnishes information to the EICAS (engine indication and crew alerting system).

Fading of brakes. The decrease in the amount of braking action that occurs with some types of brakes that are applied for a long period of time. True fading occurs with overheated drum-type brakes. As the drum is heated, it expands in a bell-mouthed fashion. This decreases the amount of drum in contact with the brake shoes and decreases the braking action. A condition similar to brake fading occurs when there is an internal leak in the brake master cylinder. The brakes are applied, but as the pedal is held down, fluid leaks past the piston, and the brakes slowly release.

Fairing. A part of a structure whose primary purpose is to produce a smooth surface or a smooth junction where two surfaces join.

Fairlead. A plastic or wooden guide used to prevent a steel control cable rubbing against an aircraft structure.

Fan pressure ratio. The ratio of the fan-discharge pressure to the fan inlet pressure.

FCC. Federal Communications Commission.

FCC. Flight Control Computer.

Feather (helicopter rotor blade movement). Rotation of a helicopter rotor blade about its pitch-change axis.

Feathering propeller. A controllable-pitch propeller whose blades can be moved into a high pitch angle of approximately 90º. Feathering the propeller of an inoperative engine prevents it from wind-milling and greatly decreases drag.

Federal Aviation Administration Flight Standards District Office (FAA FSDO). An FAA field office serving an assigned geographical area staffed with Flight Standards personnel who serve the aviation industry and the general public on matters relating to certification and operation of air carrier and general aviation aircraft.

Feeler gauges. A type of measuring tool consisting of strips of precision-ground steel of accurately measured thickness. Feeler gages are used to measure the distance between close-fitting parts, such as the clearances of a mechanical system or the distance by which moving contacts are separated.

Ferrous metal. Any metal that contains iron and has magnetic characteristics.

FHP. Friction horsepower. The amount of horsepower used to turn the crankshaft, pistons, gears, and accessories in a reciprocating engine and to compress the air inside the cylinders.

Fiber optics. The technique of transmitting light or images through long, thin, flexible fibers of plastic or glass. Bundles of fibers are used to transmit complete images.

Fiber stop nut. A form of a self-locking nut that has a fiber insert crimped into a recess above the threads. The hole in the insert is slightly smaller than the minor diameter of the threads. When the nut is screwed down over the bolt threads, the opposition caused by the fiber insert produces a force that prevents vibration loosening the nut.

File. A hand-held cutting tool used to remove a small amount of metal with each stroke.
Fill threads. Threads in a piece of fabric that run across the width of the fabric, interweaving with the warp threads. Fill threads are often called woof, or weft, threads.

Fillet. A fairing used to give shape but not strength to an object. A fillet produces a smooth junction where two surfaces meet.

Finishing tape. Another name for surface tape. See surface tape.

Fire pull handle. The handle in an aircraft flight deck that is pulled at the first indication of an engine fire. Pulling this handle removes the generator from the electrical system, shuts off the fuel and hydraulic fluid to the engine, and closes the compressor bleed air valve. The fire extinguisher agent discharge switch is uncovered, but it is not automatically closed.

Fire sleeve. A covering of fire-resistant fabric used to protect flexible fluid lines that are routed through areas subject to high temperature.

Fire zone. A portion of an aircraft designated by the manufacturer to require fire-detection and/or fire-extinguishing equipment and a high degree of inherent fire resistance.

Fishmouth splice. A type of splice used in a welded tubular structure in which the end of the tube whose inside diameter is the same as the outside diameter of the tube being spliced is cut in the shape of a V, or a fishmouth, and is slipped over the smaller tube welded. A fishmouth splice has more weld area than a butt splice and allows the stresses from one tube to transfer into the other tube gradually.

Fitting. An attachment device that is used to connect components to an aircraft structure.

Fixed fire-extinguishing system. A fire-extinguishing system installed in an aircraft.

Flame tubes. Small-diameter metal tubes that connect can-type combustors in a turbine engine to carry the ignition flame to all of the combustion chambers. The British call combustion liners flame tubes.

Flameout. A condition in the operation of a gas turbine engine in which the fire in the engine unintentionally goes out.

Flap (aircraft control). A secondary control on an airplane wing that changes its camber to increase both its lift and its drag.

Flap (helicopter rotor blade movement). Up-and-down movement of the tip of a helicopter rotor blade.

Flap overload valve. A valve in the flap system of an airplane that prevents the flaps being lowered at an airspeed which could cause structural damage. If the pilot tries to extend the flaps when the airspeed is too high, the opposition caused by the air flow will open the overload valve and return the fluid to the reservoir.

Flash point. The temperature to which a material must be raised for it to ignite, but not continue to burn, when a flame is passed above it.

Flashing the field. A maintenance procedure for a DC generator that restores residual magnetism to the field frame, A pulse of current from a battery is sent through the field coils in the direction in which current normally flows. The magnetic field produced by this current magnetizes the steel frame of the generator.

Flashover. An ignition system malfunction in which the high voltage in the magneto distributor jumps to the wrong terminal. Flashover causes the wrong spark plug to fire. This reduces the engine power and produces vibration and excessive heat.

Flat pattern layout. The pattern for a sheet metal part that has the material used for each flat surface, and for all of the bends, marked out with bend-tangent lines drawn between the flats and bend allowances.

Flat-rated engine. A turboprop engine whose allowable output power is less than the engine is physically capable of producing.

Flight controller. The component in an autopilot system that allows the pilot to maneuver the aircraft manually when the autopilot is engaged.

Float carburetor. A fuel metering device that uses a float-actuated needle valve to maintain fuel level slightly below the edge of the discharge nozzle.

Flock. Pulverized wood or cotton fibers mixed with an adhesive. Flock, attached to a wire screen, acts as an effective induction air filter for small reciprocating engines.

Flow divider (reciprocating engine). The valve in an RSA fuel injection system that divides the fuel from the fuel control unit and distributes it to all of the cylinders. It compares with the manifold valve in a Teledyne-Continental fuel injection system.

Flow divider (turbine engine). A component in a turbine engine fuel system that routes all of the fuel to the primary nozzles or primary orifices when starting the engine or when the rpm is low. When the engine speed builds up, the flow divider shifts and opens a passage to send the majority of the fuel to the secondary nozzles or orifices.

Fluid power. The transmission of force by the movement of a fluid. The most familiar examples of fluid power systems are hydraulic and pneumatic systems.

Fluid. A form of material whose molecules are able to flow past one another without destroying the material. Gases and liquids are both fluids.

Flutter. Rapid and uncontrolled oscillation of a flight control surface on an aircraft that is caused by a dynamically unbalanced condition.

Fly-by-wire. A method of control used by some modern aircraft in which control movement or pressures exerted by the pilot are directed into a digital computer where they are input into a program tailored to the flight characteristics of the aircraft. The computer output signal is sent to actuators at the control surfaces to move them the optimum amount for the desired maneuver.

Flying boat. An airplane whose fuselage is built in the form of a boat hull to allow it to land and takeoff from water. In the past, flying boats were a popular form of large airplane.

Flying wing. A type of heavier-than-air aircraft that has no fuselage or separate tail surfaces. The engines and useful load are carried inside the wing, and movable control surfaces on the trailing edge provide both pitch and roll control.

FMC. Flight Management Computer.

FOD. Foreign object damage. Damage to components in the gas path of a turbine engine, caused by ingested objects. Debris from the runway or ramp cause FOD on the ground. Ice and birds cause most in-flight FOD.

Foot-pound. A measure of work accomplished when a force of 1 pound moves an object a distance of 1 foot.

Force. Energy brought to bear on an object that tends to cause motion or to change motion.

Forehand welding. Welding in which the torch is pointed in the direction the weld is progressing.

Form drag. Parasite drag caused by the form of the object passing through the air.

Former. An aircraft structural member used to give a fuselage its shape.

Forward bias. A condition of operation of a semiconductor device such as a diode or transistor in which a positive voltage is connected to the P-type material and a negative voltage to the N-type material.

Four-stroke cycle. A constant-volume cycle of energy transformation that has separate strokes for intake, compression, power, and exhaust.

FPD. Freezing point depressant.

Fractional distillation. A method of separating the various components from a physical mixture of liquids. The material to be separated is put into a container and its temperature is increased. The components having the lowest boiling points boil off first and are condensed. Then, as the temperature is further raised, other components are removed. Kerosene, gasoline, and other petroleum products are obtained by fractional distillation of crude oil.

Frangible. Breakable, or easily broken.

Free-turbine engine. A gas turbine engine with a turbine stage on a shaft independent of the shaft used to drive the compressor. Free turbines are used to drive the propeller reduction gear in a turboprop engine and the rotor transmission in a helicopter.

Freezing point. The temperature at which solids, such as wax crystals, separate from a hydrocarbon fuel as it is cooled.

Freon. The registered trade name for a refrigerant used in a vapor-cycle air conditioning system.

Frise aileron. An aileron with its hinge line set back from the leading edge so that when it is deflected upward, part of the leading edge projects below the wing and produces parasite drag to help overcome adverse yaw.

Frost. Ice crystal deposits formed by sublimation when the temperature and dew point are below freezing.

Fuel jettison system. A system installed in most large aircraft that allows the flight crew to jettison, or dump, fuel to lower the gross weight of the aircraft to its allowable landing weight. Boost pumps in the fuel tanks move the fuel from the tank into a fuel manifold. From the fuel manifold, it flows away from the aircraft through dump chutes is each wing tip. The fuel jettison system must be so designed and constructed that it is free from fire hazards.

Fuel totalizer. A fuel quantity indicator that gives the total amount of fuel remaining on board the aircraft on one instrument. The totalizer adds the quantities of fuel in all of the tanks.

Fuel-air mixture ratio. Ratio of the number of pounds of fuel to the number of pounds of air in the mixture burned in cylinders of a reciprocating engine.

Fuel-flow transmitter. A device in the fuel line between the engine-driven fuel pump and the carburetor that measures the rate of flow of the fuel. It converts this flow rate into an electrical signal and sends it to an indicator in the instrument panel.

Full-bodied. Not thinned.

Full-register position. The position of a magnet in a magneto when its poles are aligned with the pole shoes and the maximum amount of magnetic flux is flowing through the magnetic circuit.

Fully articulated rotor. A helicopter rotor whose blades are attached to the hub in such a way that they are free to flap, drag, and feather. See each of these terms.

Fungus (plural: fungi). Any of several types of plant life that include yeasts, molds, and mildew.

Fusible plugs. Plugs in the wheels of high-performance airplanes that use tubeless tires. The centers of the plugs are filled with a metal that melts at a relatively low temperature. If a takeoff is aborted and the pilot uses the brakes excessively, the heat transferred into the wheel will melt the center of the fusible plugs and allow the air to escape from the tire before it builds up enough pressure to cause an explosion.

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