Letter B - Aviation Glossary of Terms, Acronyms & Definitions | Aircraft Systems

Letter B - Aviation Glossary of Terms, Acronyms & Definitions

Back course. The reciprocal of the localizer course for an ILS (Instrument Landing System). When flying a back-course approach, the aircraft approaches the instrument runway from the end on which the localizer antennas are installed.

Backhand welding. Welding in which the torch is pointed away from the direction the weld is progressing.

Backplate (brake component). A floating plate on which the wheel cylinder and the brake shoes attach on an energizing-type brake.

Backup ring. A flat leather or Teflon ring installed in the groove in which an O-ring or T-seal is placed. The backup ring is on the side of the seal away from the pressure, and it prevents the pressure extruding the seal between the piston and the cylinder wall.

Balance cable. A cable in the aileron system of an airplane that connects to one side of each aileron. When the control wheel is rotated, a cable from the cockpit pulls one aileron down and relaxes the cable going to the other aileron. The balance cable pulls the other aileron up.

Balance panel. A flat panel hinged to the leading edge of some ailerons that produces a force which assists the pilot in holding the ailerons deflected. The balance panel divides a chamber ahead of the aileron in such a way that when the aileron is deflected downward, for example, air flowing over its top surface produces a low pressure that acts on the balance panel and causes it to apply an upward force to the aileron leading edge.

Balance tab. An adjustable tab mounted on the trailing edge of a control surface to produce a force that aids the pilot in moving the surface. The tab is automatically actuated in such a way it moves in the direction opposite to the direction the control surface on which it is mounted moves.

Balanced actuator. A linear hydraulic or pneumatic actuator that has the same area on each side of the piston.

Banana oil. Nitrocellulose dissolved in amyl acetate, so named because it smells like bananas.

Bank (verb). The act of rotating an aircraft about its longitudinal axis.

Barometric scale. A small window in the dial of a sensitive altimeter in which the pilot sets the barometric pressure level from which the altitude shown on the altimeter is measured. This window is sometimes called the “Kollsman” window.

Base. The electrode of a bipolar transistor between the emitter and the collector. Varying a small flow of electrons moving into or out of the base controls a much larger flow of electrons between the emitter and the collector.

Bead (tire component). The high-strength carbon-steel wire bundles that give an aircraft tire its strength and stiffness where it mounts on the wheel.

Bead seat area. The flat surface on the inside of the rim of an aircraft wheel on which the bead of the tire seats.

Bearing strength (sheet metal characteristic). The amount of pull needed to cause a piece of sheet metal to tear at the points at which it is held together with rivets. The bearing strength of a material is affected by both its thickness and the diameter of the rivet.

Beehive spring. A hardened-steel, coil-spring retainer used to hold a rivet set in a pneumatic rivet gun. This spring gets its name from its shape. It screws onto the end of the rivet gun and allows the set to move back and forth, but prevents it being driven from the gun.

Bell mouth inlet duct. A form of convergent inlet-air duct used to direct air into the compressor of a gas turbine engine. It is extremely efficient, and is used where there is little ram pressure available to force air into the engine. Bell mouth ducts are used in engine test cells and on engines installed in helicopters.

Bend allowance. The amount of material actually used to make a bend in a piece of sheet metal. Bend allowance depends upon the thickness of the metal and the radius of the bend, and is normally found in a bend allowance chart.

Bend radius. The radius of the inside of a bend.

Bend tangent line. A line made in a sheet metal layout that indicates the point at which the bend starts.

Benzene. A colorless, volatile, flammable, aromatic hydrocarbon liquid which has the chemical formula C6H6. Benzene, which is sometimes called benzoil, is used as a solvent, a cleaning fluid, and a fuel for some special types of reciprocating engines.

Bernoulli’s principle. A physical principle that explains the relationship between kinetic and potential energy in a stream of moving fluid. When energy is neither added to nor taken from the fluid, any increase in its velocity (kinetic energy) will result in a corresponding decrease in its pressure (potential energy).

Beta control range (Beta mode). The range of operation of a turboprop powerplant used for in-flight approach and ground handling of the engine and aircraft. Typically, the Beta mode includes operations from 65% to 95% of the engine’s rated rpm.

Beta tube. A tube in a Garrett TPE331 turboprop powerplant that extends into the propeller pitch control to act as a follow-up device. It provides movement of the propeller blades in proportion to movement of the power lever.

Bezel. The rim that holds the glass cover in the case of an aircraft instrument.

BHP. Brake horsepower. The actual horsepower delivered to the propeller shaft of a reciprocating or turboprop engine.

Bias-cut surface tape. A fabric tape in which the threads run at an angle of 45° to the length of the tape. Bias-cut tape may be stretched around a compound curve such as a wing tip bow without wrinkling.

Bidirectional fibers. Fibers in a piece of composite material arranged to sustain loads in two directions.

Bilge area. A low portion in an aircraft structure in which water and contaminants collect. The area under the cabin floorboards is normally called the bilge.

Bimetallic hairspring. A flat, spiral-wound spring made of two strips of metal laid side-by-side and welded together. The two metals have different coefficients of expansion, and as the temperature changes, the spiral either tightens or loosens. A bimetallic hair spring is used in a thermocouple temperature changes at the reference junction.

Bimetallic strip. A metal strip made of two different types of metal fastened together side by side. When heated, the two metals expand different amounts and the strip warps or bends.

Bipolar transistor. A solid-state component in which the flow of current between its emitter and collector is controlled by a much smaller flow of current into or out of its base. Bipolar transistors may be of either the NPN or PNP type.

BITE. Built-in test equipment. A troubleshooting system installed in many modern electronic equipment. BITE equipment monitors engine and airframe systems, and when a fault is found, isolates it and provides maintenance personnel with a code that identifies the LRU (line replaceable unit) that contains the fault.

Black box. A term used for any portion of an electrical or electronic system that can be removed as a unit. A black box does not have to be a physical box.

Bladder-type fuel cell. A plastic-impregnated fabric bag supported in a portion of an aircraft structure so that it forms a cell in which fuel is carried.

Blade track. The condition of a helicopter rotor in which each blade follows the exact same path as the blade ahead of it.

Blade. The component of a propeller that converts the rotation of the propeller shaft into thrust. The blade of a propeller corresponds to the wing of an airplane.

Bleeder. A material such as glass cloth or mat that is placed over a composite lay-up to absorb the excess resin forced out of the ply fibers when pressure is applied.

Bleeding dope. Dope whose pigments are soluble in the solvents or thinners used in the finishing system. The color will bleed up through the finished coats.

Bleeding of brakes. The maintenance procedure of removing air entrapped in hydraulic fluid in the brakes. Fluid is bled from the brake system until fluid with no bubbles flows out.

Blending. A method of repairing damaged compressor and turbine blades. The damage is removed and the area is cleaned out with a fine file to form a shallow depression with generous radii. The file marks are then removed with a fine abrasive stone so the surface of the repaired area will match the surface of the rest of the blade.

Blimp. A cigar-shaped, nonrigid lighter-than-air flying machine.

Blisk. A turbine wheel machined from a single slab of steel. The disk and blades are an integral unit.

Blow-in doors. Spring-loaded doors in the inlet duct of some turbojet or turbofan engine installations that are opened by differential air pressure when inlet air pressure drops below that of the ambient air. Air flowing through the doors adds to the normal inlet air passing through the engine and helps prevent compressor stall.

Blush. A defect in a lacquer or dope finish caused by moisture condensing on the surface before the finish dries. If the humidity of the air is high, the evaporation of the solvents cools the air enough to cause the moisture to condense. The water condensed from the air mixes with the lacquer or dope and forms a dull, porous, chalky-looking finish called blush. A blushed finish is neither attractive nor protective.

BMEP. Brake mean effective pressure. The average pressure inside the cylinder of a reciprocating engine during the power stroke. BMEP, measured in pounds per square inch, relates to the torque produced by the engine and can be calculated when you know the brake horsepower.

Bonding. The process of electrically connecting all isolated components to the aircraft structure. Bonding provides a path for return current from electrical components, and a low-impedance path to ground to minimize static electrical charges. Shock-mounted components have bonding braids connected across the shock mounts.

Boost pump. An electrically driven centrifugal pump mounted in the bottom of the fuel tanks in large aircraft. Boost pumps provide a positive flow of fuel under pressure to the engine for starting and serve as an emergency backup in the event an engine-driven pump should fail. They are also used to transfer fuel from one tank to another and to pump fuel overboard when it is being dumped. Boost pumps prevent vapor locks by holding pressure on the fuel in the line to the engine-driven pump. Centrifugal boost pumps have a small agitator propeller on top of the impeller to force vapors from the fuel before it leaves the tank.

Boost. A term for manifold pressure that has been increased above the ambient atmospheric pressure by a supercharger.

Bootstrapping. An action that is self-initiating or self-sustaining. In a turbocharger system, bootstrapping describes a transient increase in engine power that causes the turbocharger to speed up, which in turn causes the engine to produce more power.

Bore. The diameter of a reciprocating engine cylinder.

Borescope. An inspection tool for viewing the inside of a turbine engine without disassembling it. The instrument consists of a light, mirror, and magnifying lens mounted inside a small-diameter tube that is inserted into a turbine engine through borescope inspection ports.

Boss. An enlarged area in a casting or machined part. A boss provides additional strength to the part where holes for mounting or attaching parts are drilled.

Bottom. (verb) A condition in the installation of a propeller on a splined shaft when either the front or rear cone contacts an obstruction that prevents the cone from properly seating inside the propeller hub.

Boundary layer. The layer of air that flows next to an aerodynamic surface. Because of the design of the surface and local surface roughness, the boundary layer often has a random flow pattern, sometimes even flowing in a direction opposite to the direction of flight. A turbulent boundary layer causes a great deal of aerodynamic drag.

Bourdon tube. The major component in a gage-pressure measuring instrument. It is a thin-wall metal tube that has an elliptical cross section and is formed into a curve. One end of the tube is sealed and connected to an arm that moves the pointer across the instrument dial, and the open end is anchored to the instrument case. The pressure to be measured is directed into the open end, which causes the elliptical cross section to become more circular. As the cross section changes, the curve straightens and moves the pointer over the dial by an amount proportional to the amount of pressure.

Brayton cycle. The constant-pressure cycle of energy transformation used by gas turbine engines. Fuel is sprayed into the air passing through the engine and burned. Heat from the burning fuel-air mixture expands the air and accelerates it as it moves through the engine. The Brayton cycle is an open cycle in that the intake, compression, combustion, expansion, and exhaust events all take place at the same time, but in different locations within the engine.

Brazing. A method of thermally joining metal parts by wetting the surface with a molten nonferrous alloy. When the molten material cools and solidifies, it holds the pieces together. Brazing materials melt at a temperature higher than 800 °F, but lower than the melting temperature of the metal on which they are used.

British thermal unit (BTU). The amount of heat energy needed to raise the temperature of one pound of pure water 1 °F.

BSFC. Brake specific fuel consumption. A measure of the amount of fuel used for a given amount of power produced by a heat engine. BSFC is expressed in pounds of fuel burned per hour for each brake horse-power the engine is producing.

Buckets. The portions of aft-fan blades that are in the exhaust of the core engine. Buckets drive the fan from energy received from hot gases leaving the core engine.

Bucking bar. A heavy steel bar with smooth, hardened surfaces, or faces. The bucking bar is held against the end of the rivet shank when it is driven with a pneumatic rivet gun, and the shop head is formed against the bucking bar.

Buffeting. Turbulent movement of the air over an aerodynamic surface.

Bulb angle. An L-shaped metal extrusion having an enlarged, rounded edge that resembles a bulb on one of its legs.

Bulkhead. A structural partition that divides the fuselage of an aircraft into compartments, or bays.

Bungee cord. An elastic cord made of small strips of rubber encased in a loosely braided cloth tube that holds and protects the rubber, yet allows it to stretch. The energy in a stretched bungee cord may be used to crank a large aircraft engine.

Bungee shock cord. A cushioning material used with the nonshock absorbing landing gears installed on older aircraft. Bungee cord is made up of many small rubber bands encased in a loose-woven cotton braid.

Burner. See combustor.

Burnish. To smooth the surface of a metal part that has been damaged by a deep scratch or gouge. Metal piled at the edge of the damage is pushed back into the damage with a smooth, hard steel burnishing tool.

Burr. A sharp rough edge of a piece of metal left when the metal was sheared, punched, or drilled.

Bus. A point within an electrical system from which the individual circuits get their power.

Butterfly valve. A flat, disk-shaped valve used to control the flow of fluid in a round pipe or tube. When the butterfly valve is across the tube, the flow is shut off, and when it is parallel with the tube, the obstruction caused by the valve is minimum, and the flow is at its greatest. Butterfly-type throttle valves are used to control the airflow through the fuel metering system.

Buttock line. A line used to locate a position to the right or left of the center line of an aircraft structure.

Butyl. Trade name for a synthetic rubber product made by the polymerization of isobutylene. Butyl withstands such potent chemicals as phosphate ester-base (Skydrol) hydraulic fluids.

Bypass engine. Another name for a turbofan engine. See turbofan engine.

Bypass ratio. The ratio of the mass of air moved by the fan to the mass of air moved by the core engine.