Letter A - Aviation Glossary of Terms, Acronyms & Definitions | Aircraft Systems

Letter A - Aviation Glossary of Terms, Acronyms & Definitions

Aborted takeoff. A takeoff that is terminated prematurely when it is determined that some condition exists that makes takeoff or further flight dangerous.

Abradable strip. A strip of material in the compressor housing of some axial-flow gas turbine engines. The tip of the compressor blade touches the abradable strip, and wears, or abrades a groove in it. This groove ensures the minimum tip clearance.

Abradable tip (compressor blade tip). The tip of some axial-flow compressor blades constructed so that it will abrade, or wear away, upon contact with the compressor housing, which ensures the minimum tip clearance between the blade and the housing.

Absolute pressure. Pressure measured from zero pressure or a vacuum.

Absolute pressure regulator. A valve used in a pneumatic system at the pump inlet to regulate the compressor inlet air pressure to prevent excessive speed variation and/or overspeeding of the compressor.

Absolute zero. The point at which all molecular motion ceases. Absolute zero is –460 °F and –273 °C.

AC. Alternating current. Electrical current in which the electrons continually change their rate of flow and periodically reverse their direction.

ACC. Active clearance control. A system for controlling the clearance between tips of the compressor and turbine blades and the case of high-performance turbofan engines. When the engine is operating at maximum power, the blade tip clearance should be minimum, and the ACC system sprays cool fan discharge air over the outside of the engine case. This causes the case to shrink enough to decrease the tip clearance. For flight conditions that do not require such close clearance, the cooling air is turned off, and the case expands to its normal dimensions. The control of the ACC system is done by the FADEC, or full-authority digital electronic control.

Acceleration. The amount the velocity of an object is increased by a force during each second it is acted upon by that force. Acceleration is usually measured and expressed in terms of feet per second, per second (fps²).

Accessory end. The end of a reciprocating engine on which many of the accessories are mounted. Also, called the anti-propeller end.

Accumulator. A hydraulic component that consists of two compartments separated by a movable component, such as a piston, diaphragm, or bladder. One compartment is filled with compressed air or nitrogen, and the other is filled with hydraulic fluid and is connected into the system pressure manifold. An accumulator allows an incompressible fluid to be stored under pressure by the force produced by a compressible fluid. Its primary purposes are to act as a shock absorber in the system, and to provide a source of additional hydraulic power when heavy demands are placed on the system.

Actuator. A fluid power device that changes fluid pressure into mechanical motion.

AD (ashless dispersant) oil. A mineral-based lubricating oil used in reciprocating engines. This oil does not contain any metallic ash-forming additives, but has additives that disperse the contaminants and hold them in suspension until they can be removed by filters.

ADC. Air data computer.

ADF. Automatic direction finder.

ADI. Attitude director indicator.

ADI (antidetonation injection) system. A system used with some large reciprocating engines in which a mixture of water and alcohol is sprayed into the engine with the fuel when operating at extremely high power. The fuel-air mixture is leaned to allow the engine to develop its maximum power, and the ADI fluid absorbs excessive heat when it vaporizes.

Adiabatic change. A physical change that takes place within a material in which heat energy is neither added to the material, nor taken away. If a container of gas is compressed, with no heat energy added to or taken from it, the gas will become hotter; its temperature will rise.

Advancing blade. The blade on a helicopter rotor whose tip is moving in the same direction the helicopter is moving.

Adverse yaw. A condition of flight at the beginning of a turn in which the nose of an airplane momentarily yaws in the opposite direction from the direction in which the turn is to be made.

Aerodynamic drag. The total resistance to the movement of an object through the air. Aerodynamic drag is composed of both induced drag and parasite drag. See induced drag and parasite drag.

Aerodynamic lift. The force produced by air moving over a specially shaped surface called an airfoil. Aerodynamic lift acts in a direction perpendicular to the direction the air is moving.

Aeromatic propeller. A patented variable-pitch propeller that has counterweights around the blade shanks and the blades angled back from the hub to increase the effects of aerodynamic and centrifugal twisting forces. This propeller automatically maintains a relatively constant rpm for any throttle setting.

Aeronautical Radio Incorporated (ARINC). A corporation whose principal stockholders are the airlines. Its function is to operate certain communication links between airliners in flight and the airline ground facilities. ARINC also sets standards for communication equipment used by the airlines.

Aft-fan engine. A turbofan engine with the fan mounted behind the compressor section. The blades of an aft-fan are normally extensions of the free turbine blades.

Afterburner. A component in the exhaust system of a turbojet or turbofan engine used to increase the thrust for takeoff and for special flight conditions. Since much of the air passing through a gas turbine engine is used only for cooling, it still contains a great deal of oxygen. Fuel is sprayed into the hot, oxygen-rich exhaust in the afterburner, where it is ignited and burned to produce additional thrust.

Aging. A change in the characteristics of a material with time. Certain aluminum alloys do not have their full strength when they are first removed from the quench bath after they have been heat-treated, but they gain this strength after a few days by the natural process of aging.

Agonic line. A line drawn on an aeronautical chart along which there is no angular difference between the magnetic and geographic north poles.

Air bleed (carburetor component). A small hole in the fuel passage between the float bowl and the discharge nozzle of a float carburetor. Air drawn into the liquid fuel through the air bleed breaks the fuel up into an emulsion, making it easy to atomize and vaporize.

Air carrier. An organization or person involved in the business of transporting people or cargo by air for compensation or hire.

Air cooling. The removal of unwanted heat from an aircraft engine by transferring the heat directly into the air flowing over the engine components.

Air-cycle cooling system. A system for cooling the air in the cabin of a turbojet-powered aircraft. Compressor bleed air passes through two heat exchangers where it gives up some of its heat; then, it drives an expansion turbine where it loses still more of its heat energy as the turbine drives a compressor. When the air leaves the turbine, it expands and its pressure and temperature are both low.

Air-fuel mixture ratio. The ratio of the weight of the air to that of the fuel in the mixture fed into the cylinders of an engine.

Air impingement starter. A turbine engine starter that basically consists of a nozzle that blows a stream of compressed air against the turbine blades to rotate the compressor for starting the engine.

Air-oil separator. A component in a turbine engine lubrication system that removes the air from the scavenged oil before it is returned to the oil tank.

Aircraft communication addressing and reporting system (ACARS). A two-way communication link between an airliner in flight and the airline’s main ground facilities. Data is collected in the aircraft by digital sensors and is transmitted to the ground facilities. Replies from the ground may be printed out so the appropriate flight crewmember can have a hard copy of the response.

Airfoil. Any surface designed to obtain a useful reaction, or lift, from air passing over it.

Airspeed indicator. A flight instrument that measures the pressure differential between the pitot, or ram, air pressure, and the static pressure of the air surrounding the aircraft. This differential pressure is shown in units of miles per hour, knots, or kilometers per hour.

Airworthiness Directive (AD note). Airworthiness Directives (ADs) are legally enforceable rules issued by the FAA in accordance with 14 CFR part 39 to correct an unsafe condition in a product. 14 CFR part 39 defines a product as an aircraft, aircraft engine, propeller, or appliance.

Alclad. A registered trade name for clad aluminum alloy.

All-weather spark plug. A shielded spark plug designed for high altitude operation. The ceramic insulator is recessed into the shell to allow a resilient grommet on the ignition harness to provide a watertight seal. All weather spark plugs, also called high-altitude spark plugs, are identified by their 3/4- 20 shielding threads.

Alodine. The registered trade name for a popular conversion coating chemical used to produce a hard, airtight, oxide film on aluminum alloy for corrosion protection.

Alpha control range (alpha mode). The flight operating mode from takeoff through landing for a turbo-prop engine. Alpha mode includes operations from 95% to 100% of the engine’s rated rpm.

Alphanumeric symbols. Symbols made up of all of the letters in our alphabet, numerals, punctuation marks, and certain other special symbols.

Alternator. An electrical generator that produces alternating current. The popular DC alternator used on light aircraft produces three-phase AC in its stator windings. This AC is changed into DC by a six-diode, solid-state rectifier before it leaves the alternator.

Altimeter setting. The barometric pressure at a given location corrected to mean (average) sea level.

Altitude engine. A reciprocating engine whose rated sea-level takeoff power can be produced to an established higher altitude.

Alumel. An alloy of nickel, aluminum, manganese, and silicon that is the negative element in a thermocouple used to measure exhaust gas temperature.

Amateur-built aircraft. Aircraft built by individuals as a hobby rather than by factories as commercial products. Amateur-built or homebuilt aircraft do not fall under the stringent requirements imposed by the FAA on commercially built aircraft.

Ambient air pressure. The pressure of the air that surrounds an object.

Ambient temperature. The temperature of the air surrounding a person or an object.

American wire gauge. The system of measurement of wire size used in aircraft electrical systems.

Amphibian. An airplane with landing gear that allows it to operate from both water and land surfaces.

Amplifier. An electronic circuit in which a small change in voltage or current controls a much larger change in voltage or current.

Analog electronics. Electronics in which values change in a linear fashion. Output values vary in direct relationship to changes of input values.

Analog indicator. An indicator that shows the value of the parameter being measured by a number marked on a graduated dial aligned with a movable pointer.

Analog-type indicator. An electrical meter that indicates values by the amount a pointer moves across a graduated numerical scale.

Aneroid. The sensitive component in an altimeter or barometer that measures the absolute pressure of the air. The aneroid is a sealed, flat capsule made of thin corrugated disks of metal soldered together and evacuated by pumping all of the air out of it. Evacuating the aneroid allows it to expand or collapse as the air pressure on the outside changes.

Angle of attack. The acute angle formed between the chord line of an airfoil and the direction of the air that strikes the airfoil.

Angle of attack indicator. An instrument that measures the angle between the local airflow around the direction detector and the fuselage reference plane.

Angle of incidence. The acute angle formed between the chord line of an airfoil and the longitudinal axis of the aircraft on which it is mounted.

Annual inspection. A complete inspection of the airframe and powerplant required for FAA-certificated aircraft operating under 14 CFR part 91 General Operating and Flight Rules, and not on one of the authorized special inspection programs. An annual inspection must be conducted every 12 calendar months, and it must be conducted by an aviation maintenance technician who holds an Airframe and Powerplant rating and an Inspection Authorization. The scope of an annual inspection is the same as that of a 100-hour inspection.

Annual rings. The rings that appear in the end of a log cut from a tree. The number of annual rings per inch gives an indication of the strength of the wood. The more rings there are and the closer they are together, the stronger the wood. The pattern of alternating light and dark rings is caused by the seasonal variations in the growth rate of the tree. A tree grows quickly in the spring and produces the light-colored, less dense rings. The slower growth during the summer, or latter part of the growing season, produces the dark-colored, denser rings.

Annular duct. A duct, or passage, that surrounds an object. The annular fan-discharge duct surrounds the core engine.

Annular orifice. A ring-shaped orifice, normally one that surrounds another orifice.

Annulus. A ring or groove around the outside of a circular body or shaft, or around the inside of a cylindrical hole.

Annunciator panel. A panel of warning lights in plain sight of the pilot. These lights are identified by the name of the system they represent and are usually covered with colored lenses to show the meaning of the condition they announce.

Anodizing. The electrolytic process in which a hard, airtight, oxide film is deposited on aluminum alloy for corrosion protection.

Antenna. A special device used with electronic communication and navigation systems to radiate and receive electromagnetic energy.

Anti-icing. Prevention of the formation of ice on a surface.

Anti-propeller end. The end of a reciprocating engine that does not attach to the propeller. Also called the accessory end.

Anti-ice system. A system that prevents the formation of ice on an aircraft structure.

Anti-icing additive. A chemical added to the turbine-engine fuel used in some aircraft. This additive mixes with water that condenses from the fuel and lowers its freezing temperature so it will not freeze and block the fuel filters. It also acts as a biocidal agent and prevents the formation of microbial contamination in the tanks.

Antidrag wire. A structural wire inside a Pratt truss airplane wing between the spars. Antidrag wires run from the rear spar inboard, to the front spar at the next bay outboard. Antidrag wires oppose the forces that try to pull the wing forward.

Antiservo tab. A tab installed on the trailing edge of a stabilator to make it less sensitive. The tab automatically moves in the same direction as the stabilator to produce an aerodynamic force that tries to bring the surface back to a streamline position. This tab is also called an antibalance tab.

Antiskid brake system. An electrohydraulic system in an airplane’s power brake system that senses the deceleration rate of every main landing gear wheel. If any wheel decelerates too rapidly, indicating an impending skid, pressure to that brake is released and the wheel stops decelerating. Pressure is then reapplied at a slightly lower value.

Antitear strip. Strips of aircraft fabric laid under the reinforcing tape before the fabric is stitched to an aircraft wing.

APC. Absolute pressure controller.

APU. Auxiliary power unit. A small turbine- or reciprocating-engine-powered generator, hydraulic pump, and air pump. APUs are installed in the aircraft and are used to supply electrical power, air, and hydraulic pressure when the main engines are not running.

Aramid fiber. Fiber made from an organic compound of carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, and nitrogen. It has high strength and low density. It is flexible under load and is able to withstand impact, shock, and vibration. Kevlar is a well-known aramid fiber.

Arbor press. A press with either a mechanically or hydraulically operated ram used in a maintenance shop for a variety of pressing functions.

Arcing. Sparking between a commutator and brush or between switch contacts that is caused by induced current when a circuit is broken.

Area. The number of square units in a surface.

Aromatic compound. A chemical compound such as toluene, xylene, and benzene that is blended with gasoline to improve its anti-detonation characteristics.

Articulating rod. See link rod.

Aspect ratio. The ratio of the length, or span, of an airplane wing to its width, or chord. For a nonrectangular wing, the aspect ratio is found by dividing the square of the span of the wing by its area. Aspect Ratio = span2 ÷ area.

Asymmetrical airfoil. An airfoil section that is not the same on both sides of the chord line.

Asymmetrical lift. A condition of uneven lift produced by the rotor when a helicopter is in forward flight. Asymmetrical lift is caused by the difference between the airspeed of the advancing blade and that of the retreating blade.

Asymmetrical loading. The loading of a propeller disk that causes one side to produce more thrust than the other side.

ATF. Aerodynamic twisting force. The aerodynamic force that acts on a rotating propeller blade to increase its blade angle. The axis of rotation of a blade is near the center of its chord line, and the center of pressure is between the axis and the leading edge. Aerodynamic lift acting through the center of pressure tries to rotate the blade to a higher pitch angle.

Atomize. The process of breaking a liquid down into tiny droplets or a fine spray. Atomized liquids vaporize easily.

Attenuate. To weaken, or lessen the intensity of, an activity.

Attitude indicator. A gyroscopic flight instrument that gives the pilot an indication of the attitude of the aircraft relative to its pitch and roll axes. The attitude indicator in an autopilot is in the sensing system that detects deviation from a level-flight attitude.

Augmenter tube. A long, stainless steel tube around the discharge of the exhaust pipes of a reciprocating engine. Exhaust gases flow through the augmenter tube and produce a low pressure that pulls additional cooling air through the engine compartment. Heat may be taken from the augmenter tubes and directed through the leading edges of the wings for thermal anti-icing.

Autoclave. A pressure vessel inside of which air can be heated to a high temperature and pressure raised to a high value. Autoclaves are used in the composite manufacturing industry to apply heat and pressure for curing resins.

Autogyro. A heavier-than-air rotor-wing aircraft sustained in the air by rotors turned by aerodynamic forces rather than by engine power. When the name Autogyro is spelled with a capital A, it refers to a specific series of machines built by Juan de la Cierva or his successors.

Autoignition system. A system on a turbine engine that automatically energizes the igniters to provide a relight if the engine should flame out.

Automatic adjuster. A subsystem in an aircraft disk brake that compensates for disk or lining wear. Each time the brakes are applied, the automatic adjuster is reset for zero clearance, and when the brakes are released, the clearance between the disks or the disk and lining is returned to a preset value. A malfunctioning automatic adjuster in a multiple-disk brake can cause sluggish and jerky operation.

Automatic flight control system (AFCS). The full system of automatic flight control that includes the autopilot, flight director, horizontal situation indicator, air data sensors, and other avionics inputs.

Automatic intake valve. An intake valve opened by low pressure created inside the cylinder as the piston moves down. There is no mechanical means of opening it.

Automatic mixture control (AMC). The device in a fuel metering system, such as a carburetor or fuel injection system, that keeps the fuel-air mixture ratio constant as the density of air changes with altitude.

Automatic pilot (autopilot). An automatic flight control device that controls an aircraft about one or more of its three axes. The primary purpose of an autopilot is to relieve the pilot of the control of the aircraft during long periods of flight.

Autosyn system. A synchro system used in remote indicating instruments. The rotors in an Autosyn system are two-pole electromagnets, and the stators are delta-connected, three-phase, distributed-pole windings in the stator housings. The rotors in the transmitters and indicators are connected in parallel and are excited with 26-volt, 400-Hz AC. The rotor in the indicator follows the movement of the rotor in the transmitter.

Auxiliary power unit (APU). A small turbine or reciprocating engine that drives a generator, hydraulic pump, and air pump. The APU is installed in the aircraft and is used to supply electrical power, compressed air, and hydraulic pressure when the main engines are not running.

Aviation snips. Compound-action hand shears used for cutting sheet metal. Aviation snips come in sets of three. One pair cuts to the left, one pair cuts to the right, and the third pair of snips cuts straight.

Aviator’s oxygen. Oxygen that has had almost all of the water and water vapor removed from it.

Avionics. The branch of technology that deals with the design, production, installation, use, and servicing of electronic equipment mounted in aircraft.

Axial bearing load. The load on a bearing parallel to the shaft on which the bearing is mounted. Thrust produces an axial load on a bearing.

Axial turbine. A turbine that is turned by a fluid flowing through it in a direction that is approximately parallel to the shaft on which the turbine wheel is mounted.

Axial-flow compressor. A type of compressor used in gas turbine engines. Air passes through the compressor in essentially a straight line, parallel to the axis of the compressor. The compressor is made of a number of stages of rotating compressor blades between stages of stationary stator vanes.

Axis of rotation. The center line about which a propeller rotates.

Azimuth. A horizontal angular distance, measured clockwise from a fixed reference direction to an object.