Aviation Glossary of Terms, Acronyms & Definitions - Letter S

Saddle gusset. A piece of plywood glued to an aircraft structural member. The saddle gusset has a cutout to hold a backing block or strip tightly against the skin to allow a nailing strip to be used to apply pressure to a glued joint in the skin.

SAE. Society of Automotive Engineers. A professional organization that has formulated standards for the automotive and aviation industries.

Safety gap. A location in a magneto that allows a spark to jump to ground from the secondary circuit before the voltage rises high enough to damage the secondary insulation.
Sailplane. A high-performance glider.

Sand casting. A method of molding metal parts in a mold made of sand. A pattern that duplicates the part to be molded is made of wood and is covered with a special casting sand that contains a resin to bind it. The mold is separated along a special parting line, and the pattern is removed. The mold is put back together, and molten metal is poured into the cavity. When the metal cools, the sand is broken away from the molded part. Sand casting is less expensive than permanent-mold casting.

Sandwich material. A type of composite structural material in which a core material is bonded between face sheets of metal or resin-impregnated fabric.

Satin-weave fabric. Fabric in which the warp threads pass under one fill thread and over several others. Satin-weave fabrics are used when the lay-up must be made over complex shapes.

Saybolt Seconds Universal (SSU) viscosity. A measurement of viscosity (resistance to flow)of a lubricating oil. The number of seconds needed for 60 milliliters of oil at a specified temperature to flow through a calibrated orifice. The viscosity number used for commercial aviation engine lubricating oil relates closely to the SSU viscosity of the oil at 210 ºF.

Scarf joint. A joint in a wood structure in which the ends to be joined are cut in a long taper, normally about 12:1, and fastened together by gluing. A glued scarf joint makes a strong splice because the joint is made along the side of the wood fibers rather than along their ends.

Scavenge subsystem. The subsystem in the lubrication system of a gas turbine engine that collects oil after it has lubricated the bearings and gears and returns it to the oil tank.

Schematic diagram. A diagram of an electrical system in which the system components are represented by symbols rather than drawings or pictures of the actual devices.

Schrader valve. A type of service valve used in an air conditioning system. This is a spring-loaded valve much like the valve used to put air into a tire.

Scimitar shape. The shape of the blades of the propellers mounted on UHB engines. The name is derived from the shape of a curved Asian sword that has its edge on the convex side. See UHB engine.

Scissors. A name commonly used for torque links. See torque links.

Scramjet. Supersonic combustion ramjet. A special type of ramjet engine whose fuel can be ignited while the vehicle is mobbing at a supersonic speed.

Scrim cloth. Scrim cloth can be used in repair applications or for reinforcement of other types of materials including fiberglass, concrete and some plastics. When fully cured, the scrim cloth will add reinforcement and mimic the expansion and contraction of the surrounding substrate.

Scuffing. Severe damage to moving parts caused when one metal part moves across another without sufficient lubricant between them. Enough heat is generated by friction to cause the high points of the surfaces to weld together; continued movement tears, or scuffs, the metal.

Scupper. A recess around the filler neck of an aircraft fuel tank. Any fuel spilled when the tank is being serviced collects in the scupper and drains to the ground through a drain line rather than flowing into the aircraft structure.

Sea level engine. A reciprocating engine whose rated takeoff power can be produced only at sea level.

Sea-level boosted engine. A reciprocating engine that has had its sea-level rated horsepower increased by supercharging. This is the same as a ground-boosted engine.

Secondary winding. The winding in a magneto or ignition coil that connects to the distributor rotor. The secondary winding is normally made of very small diameter wire and has a large number of turns, typically about 20,000.

Sector gear. A part of a gear wheel containing the hub and a portion of the rim with teeth.

Segmented-rotor brake. A heavy-duty, multiple-disk brake used on large, high-speed aircraft. Stators that are surfaced with a material that retains its friction characteristics at high temperatures are keyed to the axle. Rotors which are keyed into the wheels mesh with the stators. The rotors are made in segments to allow for cooling and for their large amounts of expansion.

Selcal system. Selective calling system. Each aircraft operated by an airline is assigned a particular four-tone audio combination for identification purposes. A ground station keys the signal whenever contact with that particular aircraft is desired. The signal is decoded by the airborne selcal decoder and the crew alerted by the selcal warning system.

Selector valve. A flow control valve used in hydraulic systems that directs pressurized fluid into one side of an actuator, and at the same time directs return fluid from the other side of the actuator back to the reservoir. There are two basic types of selector valves: open-center valves and closed-center valves. The four-port closed-center valve is the most frequently used type. See closed-center selector valve and open-center selector valve.

Self-accelerating speed. The speed attained by a gas turbine engine during start-up that allows it to accelerate to its normal idling speed without assistance from the starter.

Selsyn system. A DC synchro system used in remote indicating instruments. The rotor in the indicator is a permanent magnet and the stator is a tapped toroidal coil. The transmitter is a circular potentiometer with DC power fed into its wiper which is moved by the object being monitored. The transmitter is connected to the indicator in such a way that rotation of the transmitter shaft varies the current in the sections of the indicator toroidal coil. The magnet in the indicator on which the pointer is mounted locks with the magnetic field produced by the coils and follows the rotation of the transmitter shaft.

Selvage edge. The woven edge of fabric used to prevent the material unraveling during normal handling. The selvage edge, which runs the length of the fabric parallel to the warp threads, is usually removed from materials used in composite construction.

Semiconductor diode. A two-element electrical component that allows current to pass through it in one direction, but blocks its passage in the opposite direction. A diode acts in an electrical system in the same way a check valve acts in a hydraulic system.

Semiconductor transducer. A piezoelectric crystal that converts input energy of one form, such as pressure, into output energy of another, such as an electrical signal.

Semimonocoque structure. A form of aircraft stressed skin structure. Most of the strength of a semimonocoque structure is in the skin, but the skin is supported on a substructure of formers and stringers that give the skin its shape and increase its rigidity.

Sensible heat. Heat that is added to a liquid causing a change in its temperature but not its physical state.

Sensitivity. A measure of the signal strength needed to produce a distortion-free output in a radio receiver.

Sequence valve. A valve in a hydraulic system that requires a certain action to be completed before another action can begin. Sequence valves are used to assure that the hydraulically actuated wheel-well doors are completely open before pressure is directed to the landing gear to lower it.

Series circuit. A method of connecting electrical components in such a way that all the current flows through each of the components. There is only one path for current to flow.

Series-parallel circuit. An electrical circuit in which some of the components are connected in parallel and others are connected in series.

Series-wound motor. An electric motor with field coils connected in series with the armature.

Serviceable limits. Limits included in a reciprocating engine overhaul manual. If a part measures outside of the new-parts limits, but within the serviceable limits, it will not likely wear to the point of causing engine failure within the next TBO interval.

Servo amplifier. An electronic amplifier in an autopilot system that increases the signal from the autopilot enough that it can operate the servos that move the control surfaces.

Servo system. A type of automatic control system in which part of the output is fed back into the input.

Servo tab. A small movable tab built into the trailing edge of a primary control surface of an airplane. The flight deck controls move the tab in such a direction that it produces an aerodynamic force moving the surface on which it is mounted.

Servo. An electrical or hydraulic actuator connected into a flight control system. A small force on the flight deck control is amplified by the servo and provides a large force to move the control surface.

Setback. The distance the jaws of a brake must be set back from the mold line to form a bend. Setback for a 90° bend is equal to the inside radius of the bend plus the thickness of the metal being bent. For a bend other than 90°, a K-factor must be used. See also K-factor.

Shaft horsepower. The horsepower actually available at a rotating shaft.

Shake (wood defect). Longitudinal cracks in a piece of wood, usually between two annual rings.

Shear section. A necked-down section of the drive shaft of a constant-displacement engine-driven fluid pump. If the pump should seize, the shear section will break and prevent the pump from being destroyed or the engine from being damaged. Some pumps use a shear pin rather than a shear section.

Shear strength. The strength of a riveted joint in a sheet metal structure in which the rivets shear before the metal tears at the rivet holes.

Shelf life. The length of time a product is good when it remains in its original unopened container.

SHF. Super-high frequency.

Shielded wire. Electrical wire enclosed in a braided metal jacket. Electromagnetic energy radiated from the wire is trapped by the braid and is carried to ground.

Shielding. The electrically conductive covering placed around an electrical component to intercept and conduct to ground any electromagnetic energy radiated from the device.

Shimmy damper. A small hydraulic shock absorber installed between the nose wheel fork and the nose wheel cylinder attached to the aircraft structure.

Shimmy. Abnormal, and often violent, vibration of the nose wheel of an airplane. Shimmying is usually caused by looseness of the nose wheel support mechanism or an unbalanced wheel.

Shock mounts. Resilient mounting pads used to protect electronic equipment by absorbing low-frequency, high amplitude vibrations.

Shock wave. A pressure wave formed in the air by a flight vehicle moving at a speed greater than the speed of sound. As the vehicle passes through the air, it produces sound waves that spread out in all directions. But since the vehicle is flying faster than these waves are moving, they build up and form a pressure wave at the front and rear of the vehicle. As the air passes through a shock wave it slows down, its static pressure increases, and its total energy decreases.

Shop head. The head of a rivet which is formed when the shank is upset.

Short circuit. A low-resistance connection between two points in an electric circuit.

Shower of Sparks ignition system. A patented ignition system for reciprocating engines. An induction civrator sends pulsating DC into a set of retard breaker points on one of the magnetos. This provides a hot and retarded spark for starting the engine.

Show-type finish. The type of finish put on fabric-covered aircraft intended for show. This finish is usually made up of many coats of dope, with much sanding and rubbing of the surface between coats.

Shunt winding. Field coils in an electric motor or generator that are connected in parallel with the armature.

Shuttle valve. An automatic selector valve mounted on critical components such as landing gear actuation cylinders and brake cylinders. For normal operation, system fluid flows into the actuator through the shuttle valve, but if normal system pressure is lost, emergency system pressure forces the shuttle over and emergency fluid flows into the actuator.

Sidestick controller. A flight deck flight control used on some of the fly-by-wire equipped airplanes. The stick is mounted rigidly on the side console of the flight deck, and pressures exerted on the stick by the pilot produce electrical signals that are sent to the computer that flies the airplane.

Sight glass (air conditioning system component). A small window in the high side of a vapor-cycle cooling system. Liquid refrigerant flows past the sight glass, and if the charge of refrigerant is low, bubbles will be seen. A fully charged system has no bubbles in the refrigerant.

Sight line. A line drawn on a sheet metal layout that is one bend radius from the bend-tangent line. The sight line is lined up directly below the nose of the radius bar in a cornice brake. When the metal is clamped in this position, the bend tangent line is in the correct position for the start of the bend.

Silicon controlled rectifier (SCR). A semiconductor electron control device. An SCR blocks current flow in both directions until a pulse of positive voltage is applied to its gate. It then conducts in its forward direction, while continuing to block current in its reverse direction.

Silicone rubber. An elastomeric material made from silicone elastomers. Silicone rubber is compatible with fluids that attack other natural or synthetic rubbers.

Single-acting actuator. A linear hydraulic or pneumatic actuator that uses fluid power for movement in one direction and a spring force for its return.

Single-action hand pump. A hand-operated fluid pump that moves fluid only during one stroke of the pump handle. One stroke pulls the fluid into the pump and the other forces the fluid out.

Single-disk brakes. Aircraft brakes in which a single steel disk rotates with the wheel between two brake-lining blocks. When the brake is applied, the disk is clamped tightly between the lining blocks, and the friction slows the aircraft.

Single-servo brakes. Brakes that uses the momentum of the aircraft rolling forward to help apply the brakes by wedging the brake shoe against the brake drum.

Single-shaft turbine engine. A turboprop engine in which the propeller reduction gears are driven by the same shaft that drives the compressor for the gas generator.

Single-spool gas-turbine engine. A type of axial-flow-compressor gas turbine engine that has only one rotating element.

Sintered metal. A porous material made by fusing powdered metal under heat and pressure.

Skin radiator. A type of radiator used on some early liquid-cooled racing airplanes. The radiator was made of two thin sheets of brass, slightly separated so the heated coolant could flow between them. Skin radiators were mounted on the surface of the wing, on the sides of the fuselage, or on the floats of seaplanes. Air flowing over the smooth surface of the radiator removed heat from the coolant.

Skydrol hydraulic fluid. The registered trade name for a synthetic, nonflammable, phosphate ester-base hydraulic fluid used in modern high-temperature hydraulic systems.

Slat. A secondary control on an aircraft that allows it to fly at a high angle of attack without stalling. A slat is a section of leading edge of wing mounted on curved tracks that move into and out of the wing on rollers.

Slip (propeller specification). The difference between the geometric and effective pitch of a propeller.

Slip ring. A smooth, continuous ring of brass or copper mounted on the rotor shaft of an electrical generator or alternator. Brushes riding on the smooth surface of the slip ring carry current into and out of the rotor coil.

Slip roll former. A shop tool used to form large radius curves on sheet metal.

Slippage mark. A paint mark extending across the edge of an aircraft wheel onto a tube-type tire. When this mark is broken, it indicates the tire has slipped on the wheel, and there is a good reason to believe the tube has been damaged.

Slipstream area. For the purpose of rib stitch spacing, the slipstream area is considered to be the diameter of the propeller plus one wing rib on each side.

Slot (aerodynamic device). A fixed, nozzle-like opening near the leading edge of an airplane wing ahead of the aileron. A slot acts as a duct to force high-energy air down on the upper surface of the wing when the airplane is flying at a high angle of attack. The slot, which is located ahead of the aileron, causes the inboard portion of the wing to stall first, allowing the aileron to remain effective throughout the stall.

Slow-blow fuse. An electrical fuse that allows a large amount of current to flow for a short length of time but melts to open the circuit if more than its rated current flows for a longer period.

Slow-blow ruse. A special type of electrical circuit protection device that allows a momentary flow of excess current, but opens the circuit if the excessive flow is sustained.

Sludge plugs. Spool-shaped sheet metal plugs installed in the hollow throws of some engine crankshafts.

Sludge. A heavy contaminant that forms in an aircraft engine lubricating oil because of oxidation and chemical decomposition of the oil.

Slug. The unit of mass equal to that which experiences an acceleration of one foot per second, per second when a force of one pound acts on it. It is equal to 32.174 pounds, or 14.5939 kilograms, of mass. Also called a G-pound.

Smoke detector. A device that warns the flight crew of the presence of smoke in cargo and/or baggage compartments. Some smoke detectors are of the visual type, others are photoelectric or ionization devices.

Snubber. A device in a hydraulic or pneumatic component that absorbs shock and/or vibration. A snubber is installed in the line to a hydraulic pressure gauge to prevent the pointer fluctuating.

SOAP. Spectrometric oil analysis program. An oil analysis program in which a sample of oil is burned in an electric arc and an analysis is made of the wavelength composition of the resulting light. Each chemical element in the oil, when burned, produces light containing a unique band of frequencies. A computer analyzes the amount of each band of frequencies and prints out the number of parts of the element per million parts of the entire sample. SOAP can predict engine problems by warning the engine operator of an uncharacteristic increase of any elements in the oil.

Softwood. Wood from a tree that bears cones and has needles rather than leaves.

Soldering. A method of thermally joining metal parts with a molten nonferrous alloy that melts at a temperature below 800 °F. The molten alloy is pulled up between close-fitting parts by capillary action. When the alloy cools and hardens, it forms a strong, leak-proof connection.

Solenoid. An electrical component using a small amount of current flowing through a coil to produce a magnetic force that pulls an iron core into the center of the coil. The core may be attached to a set of heavy-duty electrical contacts, or it may be used to move a valve or other mechanical device.

Solidity (helicopter rotor characteristic). The solidity of a helicopter rotor system is the ratio of the total blade area to the disc area.

Solution heat treatment. A type of heat treatment in which the metal is heated in a furnace until it has a uniform temperature throughout. It is then removed and quenched in cold water. When the metal is hot, the alloying elements enter into a solid solution with the base metal to become part of its basic structure. When the metal is quenched, these elements are locked into place.

Sonic venturi. A sonic venturi in a line between a turbine engine or turbocharger and a pressurization system. When the air flowing through the sonic venturi reaches the speed of sound, a shock wave forms across the throat of the sonic venturi and limits the flow. A sonic venturi is also called a flow limiter.

Sound suppressor. The airframe component that replaces the turbine engine tail pipe. It reduces the distance the sounds made by the exhaust gases propagate by converting low-frequency vibrations.

Specific gravity. The ratio of the density of a material to the density of pure water.

Specific heat. The number of BTUs of heat energy needed to change the temperature of one pound of a substance 1 °F.

Specific weight. The ratio of the weight of an aircraft engine to the brake horsepower it develops.

Speed brakes. A secondary control of an airplane that produces drag without causing a change in the pitch attitude of the airplane. Speed brakes allow an airplane to make a steep descent without building up excessive forward airspeed.

Spike knot. A knot that runs through the depth of a beam perpendicular to the annual rings. Spike knots appear most frequently in quartersawed wood.

Spin. A flight maneuver in which an airplane descends in a corkscrew fashion. One wing is stalled and the other is producing lift.

Spirit level. A curved glass tube partially filled with a liquid, but with a bubble in it. When the device in which the tube is mounted is level, the bubble will be in the center of the tube.

Splayed patch (wood structure repair). A type of patch made in an aircraft plywood structure in which the edges of the patch are tapered for approximately five times the thickness of the plywood. A splayed patch is not recommended for use on plywood less than 1⁄10 inch thick.

Spline. Parallel slots cut in the periphery of a shaft, parallel to its length. Matching slots, cut into the hub or wheel that fits on the shaft, lock the shaft into the device to transmit torque.

Split (wood defect). A longitudinal crack in a piece of wood caused by externally induced stress.

Split bus. A type of electrical bus that allows all of the voltage-sensitive avionic equipment to be isolated from the rest of the aircraft electrical system when the engine is being started or when the ground-power unit is connected.

Split-rocker switch. An electrical switch whose operating rocker is split so one half of the switch can be opened without affecting the other half. Split-rocker switches are used as aircraft master switches. The battery can be turned on without turning on the alternator, but the alternator cannot be turned on without also turning on the battery. The alternator can be turned off without turning off the battery, but the battery cannot be turned off without also turning off the alternator.

Spoilers. Flight controls that are raised up from the upper surface of a wing to destroy, or spoil, lift. Flight spoilers are used in conjunction with the ailerons to decrease lift and increase drag on the descending wing. Ground spoilers are used to produce a great amount of drag to slow the airplane on its landing roll.

Spongy brakes. Hydraulic brakes whose pedal has a spongy feel because of air trapped in the fluid.

Spontaneous combustion. Self-ignition of a material caused by heat produced in the material as it combines with oxygen from the air.

Sprag clutch. A freewheeling, nonreversible clutch that allows torque to be applied to a driven unit in one direction only.

Springback. A condition in the rigging of an aircraft engine control in which the stop at the engine is reached before the stop in the flightdeck. The flightdeck control moves slightly after the stop in the engine is reached, and when it is released, it springs back slightly.

Springwood. The portion of an annual ring in a piece of wood formed principally during the first part of the growing season, the spring of the year. Springwood is softer, more porous, and lighter than the summerwood.

Spur-gear pump. A form of constant-displacement fluid pump that uses two meshing spur-gears mounted in a close fitting housing. Fluid is taken into the housing where it fills the space between the teeth of the gears and is carried around the housing as the gears rotate. On the discharge side of the pump, the teeth of the two gears mesh, and the fluid is forced out of the pump.

Square. A four-sided plane figure whose sides are all the same length, whose opposite sides are parallel, and whose angles are all right angles.

Squat switch. An electrical switch actuated by the landing gear scissors on the oleo strut. When no weight is on the landing gear, the oleo piston is extended and the switch is in one position, but when weight is on the gear, the oleo strut compresses and the switch changes its position. Squat switches are used in antiskid brake systems, landing gear safety circuits, and cabin pressurization systems.

Squealer tip (compressor blade tip). See profile tip.

Squeeze film bearings. Another name for oil-damped bearings. See oil-damped bearings.

Squib. An explosive device in the discharge valve of a high-rate-discharge container of fire-extinguishing agent. The squib drives a cutter into the seal in the container to discharge the agent.

SRM. Structural Repair Manual.

Stabilator. A flight control on the empennage of an airplane that acts as both a stabilizer and an elevator. The entire horizontal tail surface pivots and is moved as a unit.

Stability. The characteristic of an aircraft that causes it to return to its original flight condition after it has been disturbed.

Stabilons. Small wing-like horizontal surfaces mounted on the aft fuselage to improve longitudinal stability of airplanes that have an exceptionally wide center of gravity range.

Stage length. The distance between landing points in airline operation.

Stage of a compressor. One disk of rotor blades and the following set of stator vanes in an axial-flow compressor.

Staggered timing. Ignition timing that causes the spark plug nearest the exhaust valve to fire a few degrees of crankshaft rotation before the spark plug nearest the intake valve.

Stagnation point. The point on the leading edge of a wing at which the airflow separates, with some flowing over the top of the wing and the rest below the wing.

Stall strip. A fixed device employed on the leading edge of fixed-wing aircraft to initiate flow separation at chosen locations on the wing during high-angle of attack flight, so as to improve the controllability of the aircraft when it enters stall.

Stall. A flight condition in which an angle of attack is reached at which the air ceases to flow smoothly over the upper surface of an airfoil. The air becomes turbulent and lift is lost.

Standard day conditions. Conditions that have been decided upon by the ICAO for comparing all aircraft and engine performance. The most basic standard day conditions are: temperature, 15 ºC or 59 ºF; altitude, mean sea level; pressure, 29.92 inches of mercury.

Standard J-1. A World War I training airplane powered by a Curtiss OX-5 engine.

Standpipe. A pipe sticking up in a tank or reservoir that allows part of the tank to be used as a reserve, or standby, source of fluid.

Starter-generator. A single-component starter and generator used on many smaller gas-turbine engines. It is used to start the engine, and when the engine is running, its circuitry is shifted so that it acts as a generator.

Static air pressure. Pressure of the ambient air surrounding the aircraft. Static pressure does not take into consideration any air movement.

Static dischargers. Devices connected to the trailing edges of control surfaces to discharge static electricity harmlessly into the air. They discharge the static charges before they can build up high enough to cause radio receiver interference.

Static pressure. The pressure of an unmoving fluid.

Static rpm. The number of revolutions per minute an aircraft engine can produce when the aircraft is not moving.

Static stability. The characteristic of an aircraft that causes it to return to straight and level flight after it has been disturbed from that condition.

Static. Still, not moving.

Steam cooling. A method of liquid cooling in which the coolant, normally water, is allowed to absorb enough heat that it boils. The steam gives up its heat when it condenses back into a liquid.

Stellite. A nonferrous alloy of cobalt, chromium, and tungsten. Stellite is hard, water resistant, and corrosion resistant, and it does not soften until its temperature is extremely high. Stellite is welded to the faces of many reciprocating engine exhaust valves that operate at very high temperatures.

Stepping motor. A precision electric motor whose output shaft position is changed in steps by pulses from the control device. Stepping motors can make high-torque changes in small angular increments to their output shaft.

Stoddard solvent. A petroleum product, similar to naphtha, used as a solvent and a cleaning fluid.

Stoichiometric mixture. The fuel-air mixture ratio that, when burned, leaves no uncombined oxygen nor any free carbon. It releases the maximum amount of heat, and therefore produces the highest exhaust gas temperature. A stoichiometric mixture of gasoline and air contains 15 pounds of air for 1 pound of gasoline.

STOL. Short takeoff and landing.

Stop drilling. A method of stopping the growth of a crack in a piece of metal or transparent plastic by drilling a small hole at the end of the crack. The stresses are spread out all around the circumference of the hole rather than concentrated at the end of the crack.

Straight polarity welding. DC-electric arc welding in which the electrode is negative with respect to the work.

Straight-through combustor. A combustor in a gas turbine engine through which the air from the compressor to the turbine flows in an essentially straight line.

Strain. A deformation or physical change in a material caused by a stress.

Stratosphere. The upper part of the Earth’s atmosphere. The stratosphere extends upward from the tropopause, which is approximately 36,000 feet above the surface of the Earth, to approximately 85,000 feet. The temperature of the air in the stratosphere remains constant at -56.5 ºC (-69.7 ºF).

Stress riser. A location where the cross-sectional area of the part changes abruptly. Stresses concentrate at such a location and failure is likely. A scratch, gouge, or tool mark in the surface of a highly stressed part can change the area enough to concentrate the stresses and become a stress riser.

Stress. A force set up within an object that tries to prevent an outside force from changing its shape.

Stressed skin structure. A type of aircraft structure in which all or most of the stresses are carried in the outside skin. A stressed skin structure has a minimum of internal structure.

Stringer. A part of an aircraft structure used to give the fuselage its shape and, in some types of structure, to provide a small part of fuselage strength. Formers give the fuselage its cross-sectional shape and stringers fill in the shape between the formers.

Stroboscopic tachometer. A tachometer used to measure the speed of any rotating device without physical contact. A highly accurate variable-frequency oscillator triggers a high-intensity strobe light. When the lamp is flashing at the same frequency the device is rotating, the device appears to stand still.

Stroke. The distance the piston moves inside the cylinder.

Sublimation. A process in which a solid material changes directly into a vapor without passing through the liquid stage.

Subsonic flight. Flight at an airspeed in which all air flowing over the aircraft is moving at a speed below the speed of sound.

Summerwood. The less porous, usually harder portion of an annual ring that forms in the latter part of the growing season, the summer of the year.

Sump (aircraft engine component). A low point in an aircraft engine in which lubricating oil collects and is stored or transferred to an external oil tank. A removable sump attached to the bottom of the crankcase of a reciprocating engine is often called an oil pan.

Sump (fuel tank component). A low point in an aircraft fuel tank in which water and other contaminants collect and are held until they can be drained out.

Sump. A low point in an aircraft fuel tank in which water and other contaminants can collect and be held until they can be drained out.

Super heterodyne circuit. A sensitive radio receiver circuit in which a local oscillator produces a frequency that is a specific difference from the received signal frequency. The desired signal and the output from the oscillator are mixed, and they produce a single, constant intermediate frequency. This IF is amplified, demodulated, and detected to produce the audio frequency that is used to drive the speaker.

Supercharged engine. A reciprocating engine that uses a mechanically driven compressor to increase the air pressure before it enters the engine cylinders.

Supercharger. An air compressor used to increase the pressure of the air being taken into the cylinders of a reciprocating engine.

Supercooled water. Water in its liquid form at a temperature well below its natural freezing temperature. When supercooled water is disturbed, it immediately freezes.

Superheat. Heat energy that is added to a refrigerant after it changes from a liquid to a vapor.

Supersonic flight. Flight at an airspeed in which all air flowing over the aircraft is moving at a speed greater than the speed of sound.

Supplemental Type Certificate (STC). An approval issued by the FAA for a modification to a type certificated airframe, engine, or component. More than one STC can be issued for the same basic alteration, but each holder must prove to the FAA that the alteration meets all the requirements of the original type certificate.

Surface roughness. The condition of the surface of a reciprocating engine cylinder wall that has been honed to make it hold lubricating oil. Surface roughness is measured in micro-inches rms.

Surface tape. Strips of aircraft fabric that are doped over all seams and places where the fabric is stitched to the aircraft structure. Surface tape is also doped over the wing leading edges where abrasive wear occurs. The edges of surface tape are pink, or notched, to keep them from raveling before the dope is applied.

Surfactant. A surface active agent, or partially soluble contaminant, which is a by-product of fuel processing or of fuel additives. Surfactants adhere to other contaminants and cause them to drop out of the fuel and settle to the bottom of the fuel tank as sludge.

Surge. A condition of unstable airflow, through the compressor of a gas turbine engine, in which the compressor blades have an excessive angle of attack. Surge usually affects an entire stage of compression.

Surveyor’s transit. An instrument consisting of a telescope mounted on a flat, graduated, circular plate on a tripod. The plate can be adjusted so it is level, and its graduations oriented to magnetic north. When an object is viewed through the telescope, its azimuth and elevation may be determined.

Swashplate. The component in a helicopter control system that consists basically of two bearing races with ball bearings between them. The lower, or nonrotating, race is tilted by the cyclic control, and the upper, or rotating, race has arms which connect to the control horns on the rotor blades. Movement of the cyclic pitch control is transmitted to the rotor blades through the swashplate. Movement of the collective pitch control raises or lowers the entire swashplate assembly to change the pitch of all the blades at the same time.

Symmetrical airfoil. An airfoil that has the same shape on both sides of its chord line, or center line.

Symmetry check. A check of an airframe to determine that the wings and tail are symmetrical about the longitudinal axis.

Synchro system. A remote instrument indicating system. A synchro transmitter is actuated by the device whose movement is to be measured, and it is connected electrically with wires to a synchro indicator whose pointer follows the movement of the shaft of the transmitter.

Synthetic oil. Oil made by chemical synthesis of a mineral, animal, or vegetable base. Synthetic oils have appropriate additives that give them such characteristics as low volatility, low pour point, high viscosity index, good lubricating qualities, low coke and lacquer formation, and low foaming.

System-pressure regulator (hydraulic system component). A type of hydraulic system-pressure control valve. When the system pressure is low, as it is when some unit is actuated, the output of the constant-delivery pump is directed into the system. When the actuation is completed and the pressure builds up to a specified kick-out pressure, the pressure regulator shifts. A check valve seals the system off and the pressure is maintained by the accumulator. The pump is unloaded and its output is directed back into the reservoir with very little opposition. The pump output pressure drops, but the volume of flow remains the same. When the system pressure drops to the specified kick-in pressure, the regulator again shifts and directs fluid into the system. Spool-type and balanced-pressure-type system pressure regulators are completely automatic in their operation and require no attention on the part of the flight crew.

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