Letter T - Aviation Glossary of Terms, Acronyms & Definitions | Aircraft Systems

Letter T - Aviation Glossary of Terms, Acronyms & Definitions

TACAN (Tactical Air Navigation). A radio navigation facility used by military aircraft for both direction and distance information. Civilian aircraft receive distance information from a TACAN on their DME.

Tachometer. An instrument that measures the rotational speed of an object.

Tack coat. A coat of finishing material sprayed on the surface and allowed to dry until the solvents evaporate. As soon as the solvents evaporate, a wet full-bodied coat of material is sprayed over it.

Tack rag. A clean, lintless rag, slightly damp with thinner. A tack rag is used to wipe a surface to prepare it to receive a coat of finishing material.

Tack weld. A method of holding parts together before they are permanently welded. The parts are assembled, and small spots of weld are placed at strategic locations to hold them in position.

Tacky. Slightly sticky to the touch.

TAI. Thermal anti-ice. A system used to prevent the formation of ice on an aircraft by flowing heated air inside the structure.

Tail pipe. The portion of the exhaust system of a gas turbine engine through which the gases leave. The tail pipe is often called the exhaust duct, or exhaust pipe.

Tailets. Small vertical surfaces mounted underside of the horizontal stabilizer of some airplanes to increase the directional stability.

Takeoff warning system. An aural warning system that provides audio warning signals when the thrust levers are advanced for takeoff if the stabilizer, flaps, or speed brakes are in an unsafe condition for takeoff.

Tang. A tapered shank sticking out from the blade of a knife or a file. The handle of a knife or file is mounted on the tang.

TBO. Time between overhauls. A time period specified by the manufacturer of an aircraft engine as the maximum length of time an engine should be operated between overhauls without normal wear causing parts of the engine to be worn beyond safe limits. TBO depends upon proper operation and maintenance in accordance with the engine manufacturer’s recommendations. The overhaul of an engine when it reaches its TBO hours is not mandatory, except for certain commercial operators that have the requirement written into their operations manual.

TCAS. Traffic Alert Collision Avoidance System.

TDC. Top dead center. The position of a piston in a reciprocating engine when the piston is at the top of its stroke and the wrist pin, crankpin, and center of the crankshaft are all in line. 
Teflon. The registered trade name for a fluorocarbon resin used to make hydraulic and pneumatic seals, hoses, and backup rings.

TEL. Tetraethyl lead.

Tempered glass. Glass that has been heat-treated to increase its strength. Tempered glass is used in bird-proof, heated windshields for high-speed aircraft.

Terminal strips. A group of threaded studs mounted in a strip of insulating plastic. Electrical wires with crimped-on terminals are placed over the studs and secured with nuts.

Terminal VOR. A low-powered VOR that is normally located on an airport.

Test club. A wide-blade, short-diameter propeller used on a reciprocating engine when it is run in a test cell. A test club applies a specific load to the engine and forces the maximum amount of air through the engine cooling fins.

Tetraethyl lead (TEL). A heavy, oily, poisonous liquid, Pb(C2H5), that is mixed into aviation gasoline to increase its critical pressure and temperature.

Therapeutic mask adapter. A calibrated orifice in the mask adapter for a continuous-flow oxygen system that increases the flow of oxygen to a mask being used by a passenger who is known to have a heart or respiratory problem.

Thermal dimpling. See hot dimpling.

Thermal efficiency. The ratio of the amount of useful work produced by a heat engine, to the amount of work that could be done by all of the heat energy available in the fuel burned.

Thermal expansion coefficient. A number that relates to the change in the physical dimensions of a material as the temperature of the material changes. The thermal expansion coefficient of aluminum is approximately twice that of steel.

Thermal relief valve. A relief valve in a hydraulic system that relieves pressure that builds up in an isolated part of the system because of heat. Thermal relief valves are set at a higher pressure than the system pressure relief valve.

Thermal shock. The sudden change in engine operating temperature that occurs when engine power is suddenly reduced at the same time the airspeed, thus the cooling, is increased. Thermal shock occurs when an aircraft is required to rapidly descend to a lower altitude.

Thermistor material. A material with a negative temperature coefficient that causes its resistance to decrease as its temperature increases.

Thermistor. A semiconductor material whose electrical resistance varies with its temperature.

Thermocouple fire-detection system. A fire-detection system that works on the principle of the rate-of-temperature rise. Thermocouples are installed around the area to be protected, and one thermocouple is surrounded by thermal insulation that prevents its temperature changing rapidly. In the event of a fire, the temperature of all the thermocouples except the protected one will rise immediately and a fire warning will be initiated. In the case of a general overheat condition, the temperature of all the thermocouples will rise uniformly and there will be no fire warning.

Thermocouple. A device used to generate an electrical current. A thermocouple is made of two dissimilar metal wires whose ends are welded together to form a loop. A voltage exists in the loop proportional to the difference in temperature of the junctions at which the wires are joined. The amount of current flowing in the loop is determined by the types of metals used for the wires, the temperature difference between the junctions, and the resistance of the wires.

Thermoplastic resin. A type of plastic material that becomes soft when heated and hardens when cooled.

Thermosetting resin. A type of plastic material that, when once hardened by heat, cannot be softened by being heated again.

Thermostatic expansion valve (TEV). The component in a vapor-cycle cooling system that meters the refrigerant into the evaporator. The amount of refrigerant metered by the TEV is determined by the temperature and pressure of the refrigerant as it leaves the evaporator coils. The TEV changes the refrigerant from a high-pressure liquid into a low-pressure liquid. 

Thermostatic valve. A temperature-sensitive valve that controls the temperature of oil in an aircraft engine. When the oil is cold, the valve shifts and directs the oil through the oil cooler.

Thermoswitch. An electrical switch that closes a circuit when it is exposed to a specified high temperature.

Thixotropic agents. Materials, such as microballoons, added to a resin to give it body and increase its workability.

Three-dimensional cam. A drum-shaped cam in a hydro-mechanical fuel control whose outer surface is ground so that followers riding on the surface, as the cam is moved up and down and rotated, can move mechanical linkages to control the fuel according to a preprogrammed schedule.

Throttle. The control in an aircraft that regulates the power or thrust the pilot wants the engine to produce.

Throw (crankshaft design). See offset throw.

Thrust horsepower. The horsepower equivalent of the thrust produced by a turbojet engine. Thrust horsepower is found by multiplying the net thrust of the engine, measured in pounds, by the speed of the aircraft, measured in miles per hour, and then dividing this by 375.

Thrust. The aerodynamic force produced by a propeller or turbojet engine as it forces a mass of air to the rear, behind the aircraft. A propeller produces its thrust by accelerating a large mass of air by a relatively small amount. A turbojet engine produces its thrust by accelerating a smaller mass of air by a much larger amount.

TIG welding. Tungsten inert welding is a form of electric arc welding in which the electrode is a nonconsumable tungsten wire. TIG welding is now called GTA (gas tungsten arc) welding.

Time-Rite indicator. A patented piston-position indicator used to find the position of the piston in the cylinder of a reciprocating engine. The body of the Time-Rite indicator screws into a spark plug hole, and as the piston moves outward in the cylinder, it contacts the arm of the indicator. A pointer contacted by the arm moves across a calibrated scale to show the location of the piston in degrees of crankshaft rotation before top center.

Timing light. An indicator light used when timing magnetos to an engine to indicate when the breaker points open. Some timing lights incorporate an oscillator or buzzer that changes its pitch when the points open.

TIT. Turbine inlet temperature. The temperature of the gases from the combustion section of a gas turbine engine as they enter the turbine inlet guide vanes or the first stage of the turbine.

TMC. Thrust management computer.

Toe-in. A condition of landing gear alignment in which the front of the tires are closer together than the rear. When the aircraft rolls forward, the wheels try to move closer together.

Toe-out. A condition of landing gear alignment in which the front of the tires are further apart than the rear. When the aircraft rolls forward, the wheels try to move farther apart.
Toggle. A T-shaped handle fitted onto the end of a cable used to engage a simple starter with an overrunning clutch.

Top overhaul. An overhaul of the cylinders of an aircraft engine. The valves, pistons, and cylinders are overhauled, but the crankcase is not opened.

Toroidal coil. An electrical coil wound around a ring-shaped core of highly permeable material.

Torque links. The hinged link between the piston and cylinder of an oleo-type landing gear shock absorber. The torque links allow the piston to move freely in and out of the landing gear cylinder, but prevent it rotating. The torque links can be adjusted to achieve and maintain the correct wheel alignment. Torque links are also called scissors and nutcrackers.

Torque tube. A tube in an aircraft control system that transmits a torsional force from the operating control to the control surface.

Torque. A force that produces or tries to produce rotation.

Torsion rod. A device in a spring tab to which the control horn is attached. For normal operation, the torsion rod acts as a fixed attachment point, but when the control surface loads are high, the torsion rod twists and allows the control horn to deflect the spring tab.

Total air pressure. The pressure a column of moving air will have if it is stopped.

Total air temperature. The temperature a column of moving air will have if it is stopped.

Total pressure. The pressure a column of moving fluid would have if it were stopped from its motion. Total pressure is the sum of dynamic pressure and static pressure.

Total temperature. The temperature of moving fluid that has been stopped from its motion. Total temperature is the sum of static temperature and the temperature rise caused by the ram effect as the fluid was stopped.

Townend ring. A type of ring cowling used over a single-row radial engine. The cross section of the ring is in the form of an airfoil that produces enough forward thrust to compensate for the cooling drag of the engine. In the United States, townend rings are often called speed rings.

TR unit. A transformer-rectifier unit. A TR unit reduces the voltage of AC and changes it into DC.

Track. The path followed by a blade segment of a propeller or helicopter rotor in one rotation.

Tractor engine. An engine installed with the propeller facing the front of the aircraft. Thrust produced by the propeller mounted on a tractor engine pulls the aircraft through the air.

Tractor powerplant. An airplane powerplant in which the propeller is mounted in the front, and its thrust pulls the airplane rather than pushes it.

Tractor propeller. A propeller mounted on an airplane in such a way that its thrust pulls the aircraft.

Trailing edge. The thin edge at the rear of a propeller blade.

Trammel (verb). To square up the Pratt truss used in an airplane wing. Trammel points are set on the trammel bar so they measure the distance between the center of the front spar, at the inboard compression strut, and at the center of the rear spar at the next compression strut outboard. The drag and antidrug wires are adjusted until the distance between the center of the rear spar at the inboard compression strut and the center of the front spar at the next outboard compression strut is exactly the same as that between the first points measured.

Trammel bar. A wood or metal bar on which trammel points are mounted to compare distances.

Trammel points. A set of sharp-pointed pins that protrude from the sides of a trammel bar.

Transducer. A device that changes energy from one form to another. Commonly used transducers change mechanical movement or pressures into electrical signals.

Transformer rectifier. A component in a large aircraft electrical system used to reduce the AC voltage and change it into DC for charging the battery and for operating DC equipment in the aircraft.

Transformer. An electrical component used to change the voltage and current in an AC circuit.

Translational lift. The additional lift produced by a helicopter rotor as the helicopter changes from hovering to forward flight.

Transonic flight. Flight at an airspeed in which some air flowing over the aircraft is moving at a speed below the speed of sound, and other air is moving at a speed greater than the speed of sound.

Transonic range. Flight at Mach numbers between 0.8 and 1.2. In this range, some air passing over the aircraft is subsonic, and some is supersonic.

Transverse pitch. See gauge.

Trend monitoring. A system for comparing engine performance parameters with a baseline of these same parameters established when the engine was new or newly overhauled. Parameters such as EGT, rpm, fuel flow, and oil consumption are monitored on every flight, and the baseline is plotted. Any deviation from a normal increase or decrease warns the technician of an impending problem.

Triangle. A three-sided, closed plane figure. The sum of the three angles in a triangle is always equal to 180°.

Tricresyl phosphate (TCP). A chemical compound, (CH3C6H4O)3PO, used in aviation gasoline to assist in scavenging the lead deposits left from the tetraethyl lead.

Trim tab. A small control tab mounted on the trailing edge of a movable control surface. The tab may be adjusted to provide an aerodynamic force to hold the surface on which it is mounted deflected in order to trim the airplane for hands-off flight at a specified airspeed.

Trimmed flight. A flight condition in which the aerodynamic forces acting on the control surfaces are balanced and the aircraft is able to fly straight and level with no control input.

Trip-free circuit breaker. A circuit breaker that opens a circuit any time an excessive amount of current flows, regardless of the position of the circuit breaker’s operating handle.

Troubleshooting. A procedure used in aircraft maintenance in which the operation of a malfunctioning system is analyzed to find the reason for the malfunction and to find a method for returning the system to its condition of normal operation.

True airspeed (TAS). Airspeed shown on the airspeed indicator (indicated airspeed) corrected for position error and nonstandard air temperature and pressure.

Trunnion. Projections from the cylinder of a retractable landing gear strut about which the strut pivots retract.

Truss-type structure. A type of structure made up of longitudinal beams and cross braces. Compression loads between the main beams are carried by rigid cross braces. Tension loads are carried by stays, or wires, that go from one main beam to the other and cross between the cross braces.

TSFC. Thrust specific fuel consumption. A measure of efficiency of a turbojet or turbofan engine. It is a measure of the number of pounds of fuel burned per hour for each pound of thrust produced.

Turbine engine. See gas turbine engine.

Turbine inlet guide vanes. A series of stator vanes immediately ahead of the first-stage turbine. The function of the inlet guide vanes is to divert the hot gases in the proper direction to enter the turbine, and to provide a series of convergent ducts which increase the velocity of the gases.

Turbine nozzle. Another name for turbine inlet guide vanes.

Turbine. A rotary device actuated by impulse or reaction of a fluid flowing through vanes or blades that are arranges around a central shaft.

Turbocharger. An exhaust-driven air compressor used to increase the power of a reciprocating engine. A turbocharger uses a small radial inflow turbine in the exhaust system to drive a centrifugal-type air compressor on the turbine shaft. The compressed air is directed into the engine cylinders to increase power.

Turbo-compound engine. A reciprocating engine that has power recovery turbines in its exhaust system. The power extracted from the exhaust by these turbines is directed into the engine crankshaft through a fluid coupling.

Turbofan engine. A type of gas turbine engine that has a set of lengthened blades on the low-pressure compressor or low-pressure turbine. Air moved by these special blades bypasses the core engine and produces between 30% and 75% of the total thrust.

Turbojet engine. A gas turbine engine that produces thrust by accelerating the air flowing through it. A minimum of energy is extracted by the turbine, with the majority used to produce an exhaust velocity much greater than the inlet velocity. The amount of thrust produced by the engine is determined by the amount the air is accelerated as it flows through the engine.

Turboprop engine. A turbine engine in which several stages of turbines are used to extract as much energy as possible. The turbines drive reduction gears which in turn drive a propeller.

Turboshaft engine. A turbine engine in which several stages of turbines are used to extract as much energy as possible. The turbines drive shafts which are used to drive helicopter rotors, generators, or pumps.

Turbosupercharger. A centrifugal air compressor driven by exhaust gases flowing through a turbine. The compressed air is used to increase the power produced by a reciprocating engine at altitude.

Turn and slip indicator. A rate gyroscopic flight instrument that gives the pilot an indication of the rate of rotation of the aircraft about its vertical axis. A ball in a curved glass tube shows the pilot the relationship between the centrifugal force and the force of gravity. This indicates whether or not the angle of bank is proper for the rate of turn. The turn and slip indicator shows the trim condition of the aircraft and serves as an emergency source of bank information in case the attitude gyro fails. Turn and slip indicators were formerly called needle and ball and turn and bank indicators.

Turnbuckle. A component in an aircraft control system used to adjust cable tension. A turnbuckle consists of a brass tubular barrel with right-hand threads in one end and left-hand in the other end. Control cable terminals screw into the two ends of the barrel, and turning the barrel pulls the terminals together, shortening the cable.

Twist drill. A metal cutting tool turned in a drill press or handheld drill motor. A twist drill has a straight shank and spiraled flutes. The cutting edge is ground on the end of the spiraled flutes.

Twist rope. A stripe of paint on flexible hose that runs the length of the hose. If this stripe spirals around the hose after it is installed, it indicates the hose was twisted when it was installed. Twist stripes are also called lay lines.

Two-spool engine. See dual-spool gas turbine engine.

Two-stroke cycle. A constant-volume cycle of energy transformation that completes its operating cycle in two strikes of the piston, one up and one down. When the piston moves up, fuel is pulled into the crankcase, and at the same time the fuel-air mixture inside the cylinder is compressed. When the piston is near the top of its stroke, a spark plug ignites the compressed fuel-air mixture, and the burning and expanding gases force the piston down. Near the bottom of the stroke, the piston uncovers an exhaust port and the burned gases leave the cylinder. When the piston moves further down, it uncovers the intake port, and a fresh charge of fuel and air are forced from the crankcase into the cylinder.

Two-terminal spot-type fire detection system. A fire detection system that uses individual thermoswitches installed around the inside of the area to be protected. These thermoswitches are wired in parallel between two separate circuits. A short or an open circuit can exist in either circuit without causing a fire warning.

Type Certificate Data Sheets (TCDS). The official specifications of an aircraft, engine, or propeller issued by the Federal Aviation Administration. The TCDS lists pertinent specifications for the device, and it is the responsibility of the mechanic and/or inspector to ensure, on each inspection, that the device meets these specifications.