Aviation Glossary of Terms, Acronyms & Definitions - Letter H

Halon 1211. A halogenated hydrocarbon fire-extinguishing agent used in many HRD fire-extinguishing systems for powerplant protection. The technical name for Halon 1211 is bromochlorodifluoromethane.

Half-wave rectifier. An electrical rectifier circuit that converts AC into pulsating DC. Only one alternation of each cycle is present in the output.

Halogenated hydrocarbon. A hydrocarbon compound in which one or more hydrogen atoms have been replaced with atoms of one of the halogen elements such as fluorine, chlorine, or bromine.

Halon 1301. A halogenated hydrocarbon fire-extinguishing agent that is one of the best for extinguishing cabin and powerplant fires. It is highly effective and is the least toxic of the extinguishing agents available. The technical name for Halon 1301 is bromotrifluoromethane.

Hangar rash. Scrapes, bends, and dents in an aircraft structure caused by careless handling.

Hardwood. Wood from a broadleaf tree that sheds its leaves each year.

Head of pressure. Pressure exerted by a column of fluid and created by the height of the column.

Heading indicator. A gyroscopic flight instrument that gives the pilot an indication of the heading of the aircraft.

Heat engine. A mechanical device that converts the chemical energy in a fuel into heat energy. The heat energy is then converted into mechanical energy and useful work.

Heat exchanger. A device used to exchange heat from one medium to another. Radiators, condensers, and evaporators are all examples of heat exchangers. Heat always moves from the object or medium having the greatest level of heat energy to a medium or object having a lower level.

Helical spline. A spline that twists, or winds, around the periphery of a shaft. Helical splines are used to change linear motion into rotary motion of the shaft on which the splines are cut.

Heli-Coil insert. The registered trade name of a special helical insert used to restore threads stripped from a bolt hole, or to reinforce the threads in an aluminum casting. The damaged threads are drilled out and new threads are cut with a special oversize tap. A coil of stainless steel wire, with a cross section in the shape of a diamond, is screwed into the hole and serves as the new threads. Heli-Coil inserts are also used to provide durable threads in soft metal castings. Some spark plug holes in aluminum alloy cylinder heads are fitted with Heli-Coil inserts to minimize the wear caused by repeated removal and installation of the spark plugs.

Helix. A screw-like, or spiral, curve.

Heptanes. An organic compound, CH3(CH2)5CH3, that is used as the low reference fuel for rating the antidetonation characteristics of aviation gasoline.

Hermetically sealed. A complete seal, especially against the escape or entry of air.

Hertz. A unit of frequency equal to one cycle per second.

High unmetered fuel pressure. Pressure in a Teledyne- Continental fuel injector pump that is adjusted by the variable orifice.

High-bypass ratio engine. A turbofan engine whose bypass ratio is 4:1 or greater.

High-pressure compressor. The second-stage compressor in a dual-spool gas turbine engine. The high pressure compressor is called the N2 compressor and is the one that is rotated by the starter for starting, and the one whose rpm is controlled by the fuel control.

Holding relay. An electrical relay that is closed by sending a pulse of current through the coil. It remains closed until the current flowing through its contacts is interrupted.

Homebuilt aircraft. Aircraft that are built by individuals as a hobby rather than by factories as commercial products. Homebuilt, or amateur-built, aircraft are not required to meet the stringent requirements imposed on the manufacture of FAA-certified aircraft.

Honing (cylinder wall treatment). Scratching the surface of the cylinder wall with an abrasive to produce a series of grooves of microscopic depth and uniform pattern. The honed pattern holds oil to lubricate the cylinder walls.

Horsepower. A unit of mechanical power that is equal to 33,000 foot-pounds of work done in 1 minute, or 550 foot-pounds of work done in 1 second.

Hot dimpling. A process used to dimple, or indent, the hole into which a flush rivet is to be installed. Hot dimpling is done by clamping the metal between heating elements and forcing the dies through the holes in the softened metal. Hot dimpling prevents hard metal from cracking when it is dimpled.

Hot section. The portion of a gas turbine engine that operates at a high temperature. The hot section includes the combustion, turbine, and exhaust sections.

Hot-tank lubricating system. A turbine engine lubricating system in which the oil cooler is located in the pressure subsystem. The oil is returned to the tank without being cooled.

Hot-wire cutter. A cutter used to shape blocks of Styrofoam. The wire is stretched tight between the arms of a frame and heated by electrical current. The hot wire melts its way through the foam.

HRD fire extinguisher. A fire extinguisher that carries the extinguishing agent in a sealed sphere or cylinder. When the agent-discharged switch is closed, an ignited powder charge drives a cutter through a frangible disk which releases the agent. The entire contents of the container is emptied in much less than a second.

HRD. High-rate-discharge.

HSI. Horizontal situation indicator.

Hub (propeller component). The high-strength component inside a propeller that attaches the blades to the engine propeller shaft.

Hybrid compressor engine. A gas turbine engine that has both centrifugal and axial-flow compressors.

Hybrid spark plug. A fine-wire spark plug that has a platinum center electrode and iridium ground electrodes.

Hydraulic actuator. The component in a hydraulic system that converts hydraulic pressure into mechanical force. The two main types of hydraulic actuators are linear actuators (cylinders and pistons) and rotary actuators (hydraulic motors).

Hydraulic fuse. A type of flow control valve that allows a normal flow of fluid in the system but, if the flow rate is excessive, or if too much fluid flows for normal operation, the fuse will shut off all further flow.

Hydraulic lock. A condition in which oil drains into the lower cylinders of a reciprocating engine and leaks past the piston rings to fill the combustion chamber. If the oil is not removed before the engine is started, it can cause serious damage.

Hydraulic motor. A hydraulic actuator that converts fluid pressure into rotary motion. Hydraulic motors have an advantage in aircraft installations over electric motors, because they can operate in a stalled condition without the danger of a fire.

Hydraulic power pack. A small, self-contained hydraulic system that consists of a reservoir, pump, selector valves, and relief valves. The power pack is removable from the aircraft as a unit to facilitate maintenance and service.

Hydraulics. The system of fluid power which transmits force through an incompressible fluid.

Hydrocarbon. An organic compound that contains only carbon and hydrogen. The vast majority of fossil fuels, such as gasoline and turbine-engine fuel, are hydrocarbons.

Hydromechanical. Any device that combines fluid pressures with mechanical actions to achieve a desired result. In a hydromechanical fuel control used for a turbine engine, hydraulic servos are used in conjunction with the mechanical linkages.

Hydroplaning. A condition that exists when a high-speed airplane is landed on a water-covered runway. When the brakes are applied, the wheels lock up and the tires skid on the surface of the water in much the same way a water ski rides on the surface. Hydroplaning develops enough heat in a tire to ruin it.

Hydrostatic test. A pressure test used to determine the serviceability of high-pressure oxygen cylinders. The cylinders are filled with water and pressurized to 5⁄3 of their working pressure. Standard-weight cylinders (DOT 3AA) must by hydrostatically tested every five years, and lightweight cylinders (DOT 3HT) must be tested every three years.

Hyperbolic navigation. Electronic navigation systems that determine aircraft location by the time difference between reception of two signals. Signals from two stations at different locations will be received in the aircraft at different times. A line plotted between two stations along which the time difference is the same forms a hyperbola.

Hypersonic speed. Speed of greater than Mach 5 (5 times the speed of sound).

Hypoxia. A physiological condition in which a person is deprived of the needed oxygen. The effects of hypoxia normally disappear as soon as the person is able to breathe air containing sufficient oxygen.

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