Aviation Glossary of Terms, Acronyms & Definitions - Letter R

Rack-and-pinion actuator. A form of rotary actuator where the fluid acts on a piston on which a rack of gear teeth is cut. As the piston moves, it rotates a pinion gear which is mated with the teeth cut in the rack.

Radial bearing load. The load on a bearing perpendicular to the shaft on which the bearing is mounted. Centrifugal loads are radial loads.

Radial engine (static radial). A form of reciprocating engine in which the cylinders radiate out from a small central crankcase. The pistons in the cylinders drive a central crankshaft which in turn drives the propeller.

Radial. A directional line radiating outward from a radio facility, usually a VOR. When an aircraft is flying outbound on the 330º from the station.

Radial-inflow turbine. A turbine, similar in appearance to a centrifugal compressor rotor. Radial-inflow turbines are used to drive the compressor in reciprocating engine turbochargers and some of the smaller APU turbine engines. Hot gases flow into the turbine from its outside rim, then radially inward through the vanes and out of the turbine at its center.

Radiation. See electromagnetic radiation.

Radius dimpling. A process of preparing a hole in sheet metal for flush riveting. A cone-shaped male die forces the edges of the rivet hole into the depression in a female die. Radius dimpling forms a round-edged depression into which the rivet head fits.

Ram air. Air whose pressure has been increased by the forward motion of the aircraft. Ram air pressure is the same as pitot pressure.

Ram drag. The loss of thrust produced by a turbojet or turbofan engine caused by the increase of velocity of air entering the engine. Ram drag is the difference between gross thrust and net thrust.

Ram pressure. Pressure produced when a moving fluid is stopped.

Ramjet engine. The simplest type of air-breathing reaction engine. Air entering the front of the engine at a high velocity has fuel sprayed into it and ignited. A barrier formed by the incoming air forces the expanding gases to leave through the nozzle at the rear. The energy added by the burning fuel accelerates the air and produces a forward thrust. Ramjet engines are used in some military unmanned aircraft that are initially boosted to a speed high enough for the engine to function.

Ram-recovery speed. The speed of an aircraft at which the ram effect caused by the forward movement increases the air pressure at the compressor inlet so that it is the same as that of the ambient air.

Range markings. Colored marks on an instrument dial that identify certain ranges of operation as specified in the aircraft maintenance or flight manual and listed in the appropriate aircraft Type Certificate Data Sheets or Aircraft Specifications. Color coding directs attention to approaching operating difficulties. Airspeed indicators and most pressure and temperature indicators are marked to show the various ranges of operation. These ranges and colors are the most generally used: Red radial line, do not exceed. Green arc, normal operating range. Yellow arc, caution range. Blue radial line, used on airspeed indicators to show best single-engine rate of climb speed. White arc, used on airspeed indicators to show flap operating range.

Ratiometer indicator. An analog temperature measuring instrument in which the pointer deflection is proportional to the ratio between the current flowing in an internal reference circuit and that flowing through the temperature-sensing probe.

RDF. Radio direction finding.

Reach (spark plug specification). The length of the threads on the shell of a spark plug.

Reaction engine. A form of heat engine that produces thrust by heating a mass of air inside the engine and discharging it at a high velocity through a specially shaped nozzle. The amount of thrust is determined by the mass of the air and the amount it is accelerated.

Reactive power. Wattless power in an AC circuit. It is the power consumed in the inductive and capacitive reactances. Reactive power is expressed in volt-amps reactive (var) or in kilovolt-amps reactive (kvar).

Reamed fir. The fit of a shaft in a hole in which the hole is drilled undersize and cut with a reamer to the correct diameter. Reamed holes have smooth walls and a consistent diameter.

Rebreather oxygen mask. A type of oxygen mask used with a continuous flow oxygen system. Oxygen continuously flows into the bottom of the loose-fitting rebreather bag on the mask. The wearer of the mask exhales into the top of the bag. The first air exhaled contains some oxygen, and this air goes into the bag first. The last air to leave the lungs contains little oxygen, and it is forced out of the bag as the bag is filled with fresh oxygen. Each time the wearer of the mask inhales, the air first exhaled, along with fresh oxygen, is taken into the lungs.

Rebuilt engine. A used engine that has been completely disassembled, inspected, repaired as necessary, and reassembled, tested, and approved in the same manner and to the same tolerances and limits as a new engine, using either new or used parts. However, all parts used must conform to all production drawings, tolerances, and limits for new parts, or be of approved oversize or undersize dimensions for a new engine. According to 14 CFR part 91, section 91.421, a rebuilt engine is considered to have no precious operating history and may be issued a zero-time logbook. Only the engine manufacturer can rebuild an engine and issue a zero-time record.

Receiver-dryer. The component in a vapor-cycle cooling system that serves as a reservoir for the liquid refrigerant. The receiver-dryer contains a desiccant that absorbs any moisture that may be in the system.

Reciprocating engine. A type of heat engine that changes the reciprocating (back-and-forth) motion of pistons inside the cylinders into rotary motion of a crank-shaft.

Rectangle. A plane surface with four sides whose opposite sides are parallel and whose angles are all right angles.

Rectification (arc welding condition). A condition in AC-electric arc welding in which oxides on the surface of the metal act as a rectifier and prevent electrons flowing from the metal to the electrode during the half cycle when the electrode is positive.

Rectifier. A device that allows electrons to flow in one direction while preventing their flow in the opposite direction. Rectifiers are used to change AC into DC.

Reducing flame. See carburizing flame.

Reed valve. A thin, leaf-type valve mounted in the valve plate of an air conditioning compressor to control the flow of refrigerant gases into and out of the compressor cylinders.
Reheat system. The British name for an afterburner. See afterburner.

Reid vapor pressure. The amount of pressure that must be exerted on a liquid to keep it from vaporizing. Reid vapor pressure is measured at 100 ºF.

Reinforcing tape. A narrow strip of woven fabric material placed over the fabric as it is being attached to the aircraft structure with rib lacing cord. This tape carries a large amount of the load and prevents the fabric tearing at the stitches.

Rejuvenator. A finishing material used to restore resilience to an old dope film. Rejuvenator contains strong solvents to open the dried-out film and plasticizers to restore resilience to the old dope.

Relative wind. The direction the wind strikes an airfoil.

Relay. An electrical component which uses a small amount of current flowing through a coil to produce a magnetic pull to close a set of contacts through which a large amount of current can flow. The core in a relay coil is fixed.

Reliability. The ability of an aircraft engine to perform its designed functions under widely varying operating conditions.

Relief hole. A hole drilled at the point at which two bend lines meet in a piece of sheet metal. This hole spreads the stresses caused by the bends and prevents the metal cracking.

Relief valve. A pressure-control valve that relieves any pressure over the amount for which it is set. They are damage-preventing units used in both hydraulic and pneumatic systems. In an aircraft hydraulic system, pressure relief valves prevent damaging high pressures that could be caused by a malfunctioning pressure regulator, or by thermal expansion of fluid trapped in portions of the system.

Repair. A maintenance procedure in which a damaged component is restored to its original condition, or at least to a condition that allows it to fulfill its design function.

Residual magnetic particle inspection. A form of magnetic particle inspection for small steel parts that have a high degree of retentivity. The part is magnetized, removed, and inspected away from the magnetizing machine.

Residual magnetism. The magnetism that remains in the field frame of a generator when no current is flowing in the field coils.

Residual voltage. The voltage produced in a generator armature when the armature is rotated in the residual magnetism.

Resistor spark plug. A shielded spark plug with a resistor between the ignition lead terminal and the center electrode. The resistor stops the flow of secondary current when its voltage drops to a specified value. The resistor prevents capacitive afterfiring.

Restrictor. A fluid power system component that controls the rate of actuator movement by restricting the flow of fluid into or out of the actuator.

Retard breaker points. A set of breaker points in certain aircraft magnetos that are used to provide a late (retarded) spark for starting the engine.

Retarded sparks. The timing of the firing of the spark plugs used to start a reciprocating engine. The sparks for starting occur later in terms of crankshaft rotation than those used for normal operation. Retarding the sparks prevent the engine from kicking back when it is being started.

Retarder (finishing system component). Dope thinner that contains certain additives that slow its rate of evaporation enough to prevent dope blushing.

Retentivity. The ability of a magnetizable material to retain the alignment of the magnetic domains after the magnetizing force has been removed. Hard steel normally has a high retentivity, while soft iron and electrical steel both have very low retentivity.

Retread. The replacement of the tread rubber on an aircraft tire.

Retreating blade stall. The stall of a helicopter rotor disc that occurs near the tip of the retreating blade. A retreating blade stall occurs when the flight airspeed is high and the retreating blade airspeed is low. This results in a high angle of attack, causing the stall.

Retreating blade. The blade on a helicopter rotor whose tip is moving in the direction opposite to that in which the helicopter is moving.

Return manifold. The portion of a fluid power system through which the fluid is returned to the reservoir.

Reverse polarity welding. DC-electric arc welding in which the electrode is positive with respect to the work.

Reverse-flow combustor. A type of combustor in which the air from the compressor enters the combustor outer case and reverses its direction as it flows into the inner liner. It again reverses its direction as it flows into the inner liner. It again reverses its direction before it flows through the turbine. Reverse-flow combustors are used where engine length is critical.

RF energy. Electromagnetic energy with a frequency high enough to radiate from any conductor through which it is flowing.

Rib thread. A series of circumferential grooves cut into the tread of a tire. This tread pattern provides superior traction and directional stability on hard-surfaced runways.

Ribbon direction. The direction in a piece of honeycomb material that is parallel to the length of the strips of material that make up the core.

Rich blowout. A condition in which the fire in a gas turbine engine goes out because the fuel-air mixture ratio is too rich to sustain combustion.

Rich mixture. A fuel-air mixture that contains less than 15 parts of air to 1 part of fuel, by weight.

Riffle file. A hand file with its teeth formed on a curved surface that resembles a spoon.
Rigid conduit. Aluminum alloy tubing used to house electrical wires in areas where they are subject to mechanical damage.

Rigidity in space. The characteristic of a gyroscope that prevents its axis of rotation tilting as the earth rotates. This characteristic is used for attitude gyro instruments.

Rime ice. A rough ice that forms on aircraft flying through visible moisture, such as a cloud, when the temperature is below freezing. Rime ice disturbs the smooth airflow as well as adding weight.

Rivet cutters. Special cutting pliers that resemble diagonal cutters except that the jaws are ground in such a way that they cut the rivet shank, or stem, off square.

Rivet set. A tool used to drive aircraft solid rivets. It is a piece of hardened steel with a recess the shape of the rivet head in one end. The other end fits into the rivet gun.

RMI. Radio magnetic indicator.

Rms. Root mean square. A dimension that is the square root of the average of an infinite number of varying values. An rms dimension is used to indicate the allowable surface roughness of a reciprocating engine cylinder wall.

Rocker arm. A pivoted arm on the cylinder head of a reciprocating engine. The pushrod forces one end of the rocker arm up, and as the other end moves down, it forces the poppet valve off of its seat.

Rocker box. The enclosed part of a reciprocating engine cylinder that houses the rocker arm and valve mechanism.

Rocket engine. A form of reaction engine whose fuel and oxidizer contain all of the oxygen needed for the release of heat energy. The released heat expands the gases which are ejected at a high velocity from a nozzle at the rear of the rocket. Because rocket engines carry their own oxygen, they can operate in outer space where there is no atmosphere.

Rocking shaft. A shaft used in the mechanism of a pressure measuring instrument to change the direction of movement by 90º and to amplify the amount of movement.

Roll (aircraft maneuver). Rotation of an aircraft about its longitudinal axis.

Roots-type air compressor. A positive-displacement air pump that uses two intermeshing figure-8-shaped rotors to move the air.

Rosette weld. A method of securing one metal tube inside another by welding. Small holes are drilled in the outer tube and the inner tube is welded to it around the circumference of the holes.

Rotary actuator. A fluid power actuator whose output is rotational. A hydraulic motor is a rotary actuator.

Rotary radial engine. A form of reciprocating engine used in some early aircraft. The crankshaft is rigidly attached to the airframe, and the propeller, crankcase, and cylinders all revolve as a unit.

Rotating combustion (RC) engine. A form of internal combustion engine in which a rounded, triangular-shaped rotor with sliding seals at the apexes forms the combustion space inside an hourglass-shaped chamber. Expanding gases from the burning fuel-air mixture push the rotor around and turn a geared drive shaft in its center. The RC engine was conceived in Germany by Felix Wankel in 1955.

Roving. A lightly twisted roll or strand of fibers.

RPM. Revolutions per minute. A measure of rotational speed. One rpm is one revolution made in one minute.

Ruddervators. The two movable surfaces on a V-tail empennage. When these two surfaces are moved together with the in-and-out movement of the control yoke, they act as elevators, and when they are moved differentially with the rudder pedals, they act as the rudder.

Run in. A time of controlled operation of a new or freshly overhauled engine that allows the moving parts to wear together.

Run up. A procedure in which an aircraft engine is operated on the ground to determine its condition and performance.

Runout. A measure of the amount a shaft, flange, or disk is bent or fails to run true. Runout is normally measured with a dial indicator.

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