Aviation Glossary of Terms, Acronyms & Definitions - Letter E

EADI. Electronic Attitude Director Indicator.

ECAM. Electronic Centralized Aircraft Monitor.

Eccentric brushing. A special bushing used between the rear spar of certain cantilever airplane wings and the wing attachment fitting on the fuselage. The portion of the bushing that fits through the hole in the spar is slightly offset from that which passes through the holes in the fitting. By rotating the bushing, the rear spar may be moved up or down to adjust the root incidence of the wing.

Eddy current damping (electrical instrument damping). Decreasing the amplitude of oscillations by the interaction of magnetic fields. In the case of a vertical-card magnetic compass, flux from the oscillating permanent magnet produces eddy currents in a damping disk or cup. The magnetic flux produced by the eddy currents opposes the flux from the permanent magnet and decreases the oscillations.

Eddy current. Current induced into a conductor due to a mobbing or non-uniform magnetic field.

Edge distance. The distance between the center of a rivet hole and the edge of the sheet of metal.

EEC. Electronic engine control. An electronic fuel control for a gas turbine engine. The EEC senses the power-lever angle (PLA), engine RPM, bleed valve, and variable stator vane position, and the various engine pressures and temperatures. It meters the correct amount of fuel to the nozzles for all flight conditions, to prevent turbine over-speed and over-temperature.

Effective pitch. The actual distance a propeller advances in one revolution through the air.

EFIS. Electronic Flight Instrument System.

E-gap angle. The position of the rotating magnet in a magneto when the breaker points are timed to open. The E-gap (efficiency gap) angle is several degrees of magnet rotation beyond the magnet’s neutral position. At this point, the magnetic field stress is the greatest, and the change in flux is the greatest, inducing the maximum voltage in the secondary winding.

EGT. Exhaust gas temperature. The temperature of the gases as they leave the cylinder of a reciprocating engine or the turbine of a gas turbine engine.

EHSI. Electronic Horizontal Situation Indicator.

EICAS. Engine Indicating and Crew Alerting System.

Ejector. A form of jet pump used to pick up a liquid and move it to another location. Ejectors are used to ensure that the compartment in which the boost pumps are mounted is kept full of fuel. Part of the fuel from the boost pump flowing through the ejector produces a low pressure that pulls fuel from the main tank and forces it into the boostpump sump area.

Elastic limit. The maximum amount of tensile load, in pounds per square inch, a material is able to withstand without being permanently deformed.

Electrical potential. The electrical force caused by a deficiency of electrons in one location and an excess of electrons in another. Electrical potential is measured in volts.
Electrical steel. A low-carbon iron alloy that contains some silicon It is used as the core for transformers, field frames for generators and alternators, and the magnetic circuit of magnetos.

Electromagnet. A magnet produced by an electrical current flowing through a coil of wire. The coil is normally wound around a core of soft iron which has an extremely low retentivity, allowing it to lose its magnetism as soon as the current stops flowing.

Electromagnetic radiation. A method of transmitting energy from one location to another. Current caused by high voltage in the secondary winding of a magneto produces electric and magnetic fields which oscillate back and forth at a high frequency and extend out into space in the form of waves. These waves of electromagnetic radiation are received as interference by the radio receivers in the aircraft.

Electromotive force (EMF). The force that causes electrons to move from one atom to another within an electrical circuit. Electromotive force is an electrical pressure, and it is measured in volts.

Electron current. The actual flow of electrons in a circuit. Electrons flow from the negative terminal of a power source through the external circuit to its positive terminal. The arrowheads in semiconductor symbols point in the direction opposite to the flow of electron current.

Elevator downspring. A spring in the elevator control system that produces a mechanical force that tries to lower the elevator. In normal flight, this spring force is overcome by the aerodynamic force from the elevator trim tab. But in slow flight with an aft CG position, the trim tab loses its effectiveness and the downspring lowers the nose to prevent a stall.

Elevons. Movable control surfaces on the trailing edge of a delta wing or a flying wing airplane. These surfaces operate together to serve as elevators, and differentially to act as ailerons.

ELT (emergency locator transmitter). A self-contained radio transmitter that automatically begins transmitting on the emergency frequencies any time it is triggered by a severe impact parallel to the longitudinal axis of the aircraft.

EMI. Electromagnetic interference.

Empennage. The tail section of an airplane.

Emulsion. A suspension of small globules of one material in another when the two materials will not mix. Oil and water will not mix, but they can be formed into an emulsion. An emulsion will separate into its components when it is allowed to sit.

Enamel. A type of finishing material that flows out to form a smooth surface. Enamel is usually made of a pigment suspended in some form of resin. When the resin cures, it leaves a smooth, glossy protective surface.

Energizing brake. A brake that uses the momentum of the aircraft to increase its effectiveness by wedging the shoe against the brake drum. Energizing brakes are also called servo brakes. A single-servo brake is energizing only when moving in the forward direction, and a duo-servo brake is energizing when the aircraft is moving either forward or backward.

Engine trimming. A maintenance procedure in which the fuel control on a gas turbine engine is adjusted to cause the engine to produce the required EGT or EPR at a specified rpm.

Entrained water. Water suspended in jet fuel. The amount of entrained water that can be held in the fuel is determined by the temperature of the fuel. When the fuel becomes cold, the water precipitates out and forms ice crystals on the fuel filter element.

Epicyclic reduction gears. A gear train in which a series of small planetary gears rotate around a central gear. More commonly called a planetary gear train.

Epoxy. A flexible, thermosetting resin that is made by polymerization of an epoxide. Epoxy has wide application as a matrix for composite materials and as an adhesive that bonds many different types of materials. It is noted for its durability and its chemical resistance.

EPR. Engine pressure ratio. The ratio of the turbine discharge total pressure to the compressor inlet total pressure. EPR is normally used as the parameter to determine the amount of thrust an axial-flow turbojet or turbofan engine is producing.

Equalizing resistor. A large resistor in the ground circuit of a heavy-duty aircraft generator through which all of the generator output current flows. The voltage drop across this resistor is used to produce the current in the paralleling circuit that forces the generators to share the electrical load equally.

ESHP. Equivalent shaft horsepower. A measure of the power produced by a turboprop engine. ESHP takes into consideration both the shaft horsepower delivered to the propeller and the thrust developed at the engine exhaust. Under static conditions, one shaft horsepower is approximately equal to 2.5 pounds of thrust.

Ethanol. Alcohol made from cereal grains such as corn.

Ether. A volatile, highly flammable liquid that may be used to prime the cylinders of an aircraft engine when starting under extremely cold conditions.

Ethylene dibromide. A colorless, poisonous liquid BrCH2CH2Br that is blended with leaded gasoline to help scavenge lead oxides.

Ethylene glycol. A form of alcohol used as a coolant for liquid-cooled engines and as an anti-icing agent.

Eutectic material. An alloy or solution that has the lowest possible melting point.

Eutectic. An alloy or solution that has the lowest possible constant melting point.

Evacuation (air conditioning servicing procedure). A procedure in servicing vapor-cycle cooling systems. A vacuum pump removes all the air from the system. Evacuation removes all traces of water vapor that could condense out, freeze, and block the system.

Evaporative cooling. See steam cooling.

Evaporator (air conditioning component). The component in a vapor-cycle cooling system in which heat from the aircraft cabin is absorbed into the refrigerant. As the heat is absorbed, the refrigerant evaporates, or changes from a liquid into a vapor. The function of the evaporator is to lower the cabin air temperature.

Exceedance condition. A condition in which a parameter sensed by the EICAS exceeds the limits for which it is programmed.

Exhaust cone. The fixed conical fairing centered in the turbine wheel. The exhaust cone straightens the flow and prevents the hot gases from circulating over the rear face of the turbine wheel.

Exhaust nozzle. The opening at the rear of the exhaust pipe.

Expander-tube brake. A brake that uses hydraulic fluid inside a synthetic rubber tube around the brake hub to force rectangular blocks of brake-lining material against the rotating brake drum. Friction between the brake drum and the lining material slows the aircraft.

Expansion wave. The change in pressure and velocity of supersonic air as it passes over a surface that drops away from the flow. As the surface drops away, the air tries to follow it, and in changing its direction, the air speeds up to a higher supersonic speed, and its static pressure decreases. There is no change in the total amount of energy as air passes through an expansion wave.

External-combustion engine. A form of heat engine in which the fuel releases its energy outside of the engine. This released heat expands air which is used to perform useful work. Steam engines are a popular type of external combustion engine.

Extreme pressure (EP) lubricant. A lubricant that reacts with iron to form iron chlorides, sulfides, or phosphides on the surface of a steel part. These compounds reduce wear and damage to surfaces in heavy rubbing contact. EP lubricants are specially suited for lubricating gear trains.

Extruded angle. A structural angle formed by passing metal heated to its plastic state through specially shaped dies.

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