Aviation Glossary of Terms, Acronyms & Definitions - Letter O

Oblique shock wave. A pressure wave that forms on a sharp-pointed object when air flows past it at a supersonic speed.

Octane rating. A system used to rate the antidetonation characteristics of a reciprocating engine fuel. Fuel with an octane rating of 80 performs in a laboratory test engine the same as the fuel made of a mixture of 80% iso-octane and 20% heptanes.

Odometer. The portion of an automobile speedometer that indicates the distance traveled.

Offset throw (crankshaft design). Crank arms on a reciprocating engine crankshaft. The arms, or throws, to which the connecting rods and pistons are attached are offset from the center of the crankshaft to move the pistons in and out of the cylinder. The amount of the offset determines the stroke of the engine.

Oil analysis. A method of measuring the contents in parts per million of various chemical elements in oil. A sample of the oil is burned in an electric arc, and the resulting light is analyzed with a spectroscope which identifies the chemical elements in the oil and gives an indication of the amount of each element. This type of oil analysis is called a spectrometric oil analysis program, or SOAP.

Oil dilution. A method of temporarily decreasing the viscosity of the lubricating oil to make it possible to start a reciprocating engine when the temperature is very low. Before shutting the engine down, enough gasoline from the fuel system is mixed with the lubricating oil in the engine to dilute it so the starter can turn the engine over when the oil is cold and viscous. When the engine starts and the oil warms up, the gasoline evaporates.

Oil-damped bearing. A type of roller bearing installation in a gas turbine engine in which the outer race is installed in an oil damper compartment whose inside diameter is a few thousandths of an inch larger than the outside diameter of the outer race. Oil under pressure fills the oil damper compartment and allows the bearing to compensate for sight misalignment and to absorb vibrations of the shaft.

Oleo shock absorber. A shock absorber used on aircraft landing gear. The initial landing impact is absorbed by oil transferring from one compartment in the shock strut into another compartment through a metering orifice. The shocks of taxiing are taken up by a cushion of compressed air.

On-condition maintenance. A maintenance program that closely monitors the operating condition of an engine and allows major repairs or replacements to be made when engine performance deteriorates to a specific level.

One-hundred-hour inspection. An inspection required by 14 CFR part 91, section 91.409 for FAA-certificated aircraft operated for hire or used for flight instruction for hire. A 100-hour inspection is identical in content to an annual inspection, but can be conducted by an aviation maintenance technician who holds an Airframe and Powerplant rating, but does not have an Inspection Authorization. See 14 CFR part 43, Appendix D for list of the items that must be included in an annual or 100-hour inspection.

On-speed condition. The speed condition in which the engine is turning at the rpm for which the propeller governor is set.

Open angle. An angle in which sheet metal is bent less than 90°.

Open assembly time. The period of time between the application of the glue and the assembly of the joint components.

Open wiring. An electrical wiring installation in which the wires are tied together in bundles and clamped to the aircraft structure rather than being enclosed in conduit.

Open-center selector valve. A type of selector valve that functions as an unloading valve as well as a selector valve. Open-center selector valves are installed in series, and when no unit is actuated, fluid from the pump flows through the centers of all the valves and returns to the reservoir. When a unit is selected for actuation, the center of the selector valve is shut off and the fluid from the pump goes through the selector valve into one side of the actuator. Fluid from the other side of the actuator returns to the valve and goes back to the reservoir through the other selector valves. When the actuation is completed, the selector valve is placed in its neutral position. Its center opens, and fluid from the pump flows straight through the valve.

Open-hydraulic system. A fluid power system in which the selector valves are arranged in series with each other. Fluid flows from the pump through the center of the selector valves, back into the reservoir when no unit is being actuated.

Operating cycle. One complete series of events in the operation of a turbine engine that consists of starting the engine, taking off, landing, and shutting the engine down.

Optoelectronic device. An electronic device that produces, modulates, or senses electromagnetic radiation in the ultraviolet, visible light, or infrared portions of the energy spectrum.

Orifice check valve. A component in a hydraulic or pneumatic system that allows unrestricted flow in one direction, and restricted flow in the opposite direction.

O-ring. A widely used type of seal made in the form of a rubber ring with a round cross section. An O-ring seals in both directions, and it can be used as a packing or a gasket.

Ornithopter. A heavier-than-air flying machine that produces lift by flapping its wings. No practical ornithopter has been built.

Oscilloscope. An electrical instrument that displays on the face of a cathode-ray tube the waveform of the electrical signal it is measuring.

Otto cycle. The constant-volume cycle of energy transformation used by reciprocating engines. A mixture of fuel and air is drawn into the cylinder as the piston moves to the bottom of its stroke. The mixture is compressed as the piston moves upward in the cylinder, and when the piston is near the top of its stroke, the mixture is electrically ignited and burns. The burning mixture heats and expands the air inside the cylinder and forces the piston down, performing useful work. The piston then moves back up, forcing the burned gases out of the cylinder.

Outflow valve (pressurization component). A valve in the cabin of a pressurized aircraft that controls the cabin pressure by opening to relieve all pressure above that for which the cabin pressure control is set.

Overboost. A condition of excessive manifold pressure in a reciprocating engine. Overboosting occurs when the supercharger is operated at too high a speed.

Overrunning clutch. A type of clutch that couples an input shaft with an output shaft. When the input shaft is driven, the output shaft rotates with it. When the output shaft is driven, the output shaft rotates with it. But when the output shaft is driven, the input shaft does not turn.

Overspeed condition. A speed condition in which the engine is turning at an rpm higher than that for which the propeller governor is set.

Overvoltage protector. A component in an aircraft electrical system that opens the alternator field circuit any time the alternator output voltage is too high.

Oxidizing flame. An oxyacetylene flame in which there is an excess of oxygen. The inner cone is pointed and often a hissing sound is heard.

Ozone. An unstable form of oxygen produced when an electric spark passes through the air. Ozone is harmful to rubber products.

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