Questions - Aircraft Instrument Systems


Study Aid Questions

Fill in the Blanks

1. There are usually two parts to any instrument or instrument system. One part ______ the situation and another part to ______ it.

2. Original analogue flight instruments are operated by ______ pressure and the use of ______.

3. 3 fundamental pressure‐sensing mechanisms used in aircraft instrument are the ______, the ______ , and the ______ sensing device.

4. Modern high performance aircraft use a digital air data computer that converts ______ into ______.

5. ADCs receive input from the ______ sensing devices and process them for use by numerous ______.

6. Altimeters that measure an aircraft’s ______ by measuring ______ of the atmosphere are known as ______ altimeters.

7. Digital flight instruments perform all of the calculations for ______ in the ADC.

8. Many high performance aircraft are equipped with ______ for monitoring Mcrit.

9. A ______ is an electric system used for transmitting information from one point to another.

10. Autosyn systems are distinguished from Magnasyn systems by the fact that the transmitter and indicator rotors used are ______ magnets rather than ______ magnets.

11. The tachometer indicates the speed of the ______ of a reciprocating engine.

12. Some turbine engines use ______ for rpm indication, rather than ______ system.

13. An accelerometer is used to monitor ______ acting upon an airframe and are used in ______ navigation systems.

14. Modern aircraft AOA sensors units send output signals to the ______.

15. Solid state magnetometers can not only sense the ______ to the earth magnetic poles, but also the ______ of the flux field.

16. Gyro instruments are driven by: ______ , ______ or ______.

17. The attitude indicator, or ______ , provides ______ and ______ information.

18. Automatic pilot systems are capable of keeping aircraft stabilized ______, ______, and ______.

19. The four basic components of an autopilot system are:
________________ ________________
________________ ________________

20. The Electronic Attitude Director Indicator (EADI) is an advanced version of ______ and ______ indicators.

21. The ______ system automatically monitors the airframe and engine systems and alerts the flight crew in case of a system failure.

22. The highest level of automated flight system is the ______.

23. The FMS coordinates the adjustment of ______, ______, and ______ parameters either automatically or by instructing the pilot how to do so.

24. When an aircraft is to be operational under IFR, an altimeter test must have been performed within the previous ______ months.

25. Compass magnetic deviation is caused by ______ interference from ferrous materials and operating ______ components in the cockpit.

TRUE or FALSE

1. Direct sensing instruments sense and display the information all in one instrument. TRUE/FALSE

2. The three basic kinds of instruments are classified as: flight instruments, engine instruments, and environmental control instruments. TRUE/FALSE

3. In a Bourdon tube the higher the pressure of the fluid, the more the tube straightens. TRUE/FALSE

4. Many flight instruments use a Bourdon type of sensing device. TRUE/FALSE

5. Solid state pressure sensing systems are internal sensing systems. TRUE/FALSE

6. The engine pressure indicator (EPR) compares the total exhaust pressure to the pressure of the ram air at the inlet of the engine. TRUE/FALSE

7. True airspeed is the relationship between the ram air pressure and static air pressure. TRUE/FALSE

8. The calculations of calibrated airspeed for modern aircraft with digital instruments are performed by the ADC. TRUE/FALSE

9. Aircraft with direct current systems (DC) often use synchro systems for transmitting information from one point to another. TRUE/FALSE

10. Tachometers used for turbine engines monitor the speed of the compressor section of the engine. TRUE/FALSE

11. Two types of Angle of Attack sensors used in aircraft are the vane type which uses an alpha vane externally mounted to the outside of the fuselage and the other type uses two slots in a probe that extends out of the side of the fuselage. TRUE/FALSE

12. Some AOA systems incorporate a stick pusher actuator that pushes the control yoke backwards to lower the nose of the aircraft. TRUE/FALSE

13. Two common application of thermocouples are: cylinder head temperature in reciprocating engines and exhaust gas temperature in turbine engines. TRUE/FALSE

14. Total air temperature (TAT) is the static air temperature minus any lowering in temperature caused by flying at high altitudes. TRUE/FALSE

15. Magnetic deviation, variation and dip errors are errors associated with a magnetic compass? TRUE/FALSE

16. The process for knowing how to adjust for magnetic variation is known as swinging the compass. TRUE/FALSE

17. Ring Laser Gyros (RLG), Microelectromechanical systems and Attitude Heading and Reference Systems (AHRS) are examples of attitude and directional systems used on modern aircraft. TRUE/FALSE

18. The sensing elements of an autopilot system are: the attitude and directional gyros, the turn coordinator, magnetic compass, and an altitude control. TRUE/FALSE

19. The output elements of an autopilot system are the servos that cause actuation of the flight control surfaces. TRUE/FALSE

20. The electronic flight instrument system replaces the attitude indicator and vertical gyro by cathode ray tubes (CRT) or LCDs that display EADI and EHSI presentations. TRUE/FALSE

21. The EICAS monitors engine and airframe parameters and doesn’t utilize traditional gauges. TRUE/FALSE

22. Maintenance personnel can access the EICAS to access data related to a failure event. TRUE/FALSE

23. The master caution lights on the enunciator panel can not be cancelled by the flight crew. TRUE/FALSE

24. Instrument panels are usually shock mounted to absorb high frequency, high‐amplitude shocks. TRUE/FALSE

25. The original equipment manufacturer will put colored range markings on the instrument face in accordance with the type certificate data sheet. TRUE/FALSE

Knowledge Application Questions

1. What is used as a reference for range marking instruments?
________________________________________________________________

2. What does a yellow arc on an instrument dial indicate?
________________________________________________________________

3. What aircraft instrument may be used to check a manifold pressure indicator for correct indication?
________________________________________________________________

4. What indication errors may be found in altimeters?
________________________________________________________________

5. What flight instruments are usually connected to a pitot‐static system?
________________________________________________________________

6. What is required after replacement of components connected to a pitot‐static system?
________________________________________________________________

7. What methods are used to drive turn‐and‐bank indicators?
________________________________________________________________

8. What is a synchro‐type remote indicating system?
________________________________________________________________

9. What does a tachometer indicate?
________________________________________________________________

10 What type of indicating system is used to measure the turbine‐engine exhaust gas temperature?
________________________________________________________________

11 What is the meaning of swinging a compass?
________________________________________________________________

12 Name the three types of basic instruments used in an aircraft flight station?
________________________________________________________________

13 What does an engine pressure indicator (EPR) compare?
________________________________________________________________

14. What equipment performs the calculation of calibrated airspeed for modern aircraft with digital instruments?
________________________________________________________________

15 Describe the two types of Angle of Attack sensors used in aircraft.
________________________________________________________________

16. What are the two most common applications of thermocouples?
________________________________________________________________

17. What type of system does monitor engine and airframe parameters and does not utilize traditional gauges.
________________________________________________________________

18. What system can be accessed by maintenance personnel to access data related to a failure event.
________________________________________________________________

19. What type of instrument maintenance can be performed by certificated A & P mechanics?
________________________________________________________________

20. Name at three systems or components that provide input to the flight management computer (FMC)?
________________________________________________________________


Multiple Choices Questions

1. An aircraft magnetic compass is swung to up-date the compass correction card when
a. the compass is serviced.
b. equipment is added that could effect compass deviation.
c. an annual inspection is accomplished on the aircraft.

2. The operating mechanism of most hydraulic pressure gauges is
a. a Bourdon tube.
b. an evacuated bellows filled with an inert gas to which suitable arms, levers, and gears are attached.
c. an airtight diaphragm.

3. What is the fixed line mark attached to the compass bowl of a magnetic compass called?
a. Reference line.
b. Lubber line.
c. Reeder line.

4. (1) Aircraft instruments are color-coded to direct attention to operational ranges and limitations.
(2) Aircraft instruments range markings are not specified by Title 14 of the Code of Federal Regulations but are standardized by aircraft manufacturers.

Regarding the above statements,
a. only No. 1 is true.
b. both No. 1 and No. 2 are true.
c. only No. 2 is true.

5. When swinging a magnetic compass, the compensators are adjusted to correct for
a. magnetic variations.
b. compass card oscillations.
c. magnetic influence deviation.

6. What will be the result if the instrument static pressure line becomes disconnected inside a pressurized cabin during cruising flight?
a. The altimeter will read low and the airspeed indicator will read high.
b. The altimeter and airspeed indicator will both read low.
c. The altimeter and airspeed indicator will both read high.

7. The maximum deviation (during level flight] permitted in a compensated magnetic direction indicator installed on an aircraft certificated under Federal Aviation Regulation Part 23 is
a. 10
b. 6
c. 8

8. Magnetic compass bowls are filled with a liquid to
a. dampen the oscillation of the float.
b. reduce deviation errors.
c. retard precession of the float.

9. Instrument static system leakage can be detected by observing the rate of change in indication of the
a. airspeed indicator after suction has been applied to the static system to cause a prescribed equivalent airspeed to be indicated.
b. altimeter after suction has been applied to the static system to cause a prescribed equivalent altitude to be indicated.
c. altimeter after pressure has been applied to the static system to cause a prescribed equivalent altitude to be indicated.

10. The maximum altitude loss permitted during an unpressurized aircraft instrument static pressure system integrity check is
a. 200 feet in 1 minute.
b. 100 feet in 1 minute.
c. 50 feet in 1 minute.

11. Which statement regarding an aircraft instrument vacuum system is true?
a. If the air inlet to each vacuum instrument is connected to a common atmospheric pressure manifold, the system generally will be equipped with individual instrument filters only.
b. Vacuum systems are generally more effective at high altitudes than positive pressure systems.
c. Dry type vacuum pumps with carbon vanes are very susceptible to damage from solid airborne particles and must take in only filtered air.

12. When an aircraft altimeter is set at 29.92" Hg on the ground, the altimeter will read
a. field elevation.
b. density altitude.
c. pressure altitude.

13. Which of the following instrument discrepancies could be corrected by an aviation mechanic?
1. Red line missing.
2. Case leaking.
3. Glass cracked.
4. Mounting screws loose.
5. Case paint chipped.
6. Leaking at line B nut.
7. Will not adjust.
8. Fogged.

a. 1,4,6
b. 1,4,5,6
c. 3,4,5,6

14. Which of the following instrument discrepancies would require replacement of the instrument?
1. Red line missing.
2. Case leaking.
3. Glass cracked.
4. Mounting screws loose.
5. Case paint chipped.
6. Leaking at line B nut.
7. Will not zero out.
8. Fogged.

a. 1,3,5,8
b. 1,4,6,7
c. 2,3,7,8

15. Which of the following instrument conditions is acceptable and would not require correction?
1. Red line missing.
2. Case leaking.
3. Glass cracked.
4. Mounting screws loose.
5. Case paint chipped.
6. Leaking at line B nut.
7. Will not zero out.
8. Fogged.

a. None.
b. 1.
c. 5.

16. A barometric altimeter indicates pressure altitude when the barometric scale is set at
a. field elevation.
b. 14.7" Hg.
c. 29.92" Hg.

17. A Bourdon tube instrument may be used to indicate
1. pressure.
2. temperature.
3. position.

a. 1.
b. 2 and 3.
c. 1 and 2.

18. A turn coordinator instrument indicates
a. both roll and yaw.
b. the need for corrections in pitch and bank.
c. the longitudinal attitude of the aircraft during climb and descent.

19. Thermocouple leads
a. are designed for a specific installation and may not be altered.
b. may be repaired using solderless connectors.
c. may be installed with either lead to either post of the indicator.

20. A synchro transmitter is connected to a synchro receiver
a. electrically with wires.
b. mechanically through linkage.
c. electromagnetically without wires.

21. The operation of an angle of attack indicating system is based on detection of differential pressure at a point where the airstream flows in a direction
a. parallel to the longitudinal axis of the aircraft.
b. parallel to the angle of attack of the aircraft.
c. not parallel to the true angle of attack of the aircraft.

22. Turbine engine exhaust gas temperatures are measured by using
a. iron/constantan thermocouples.
b. chromel/alumel thermocouples.
c. ratiometer electrical resistance thermometers.

23. Fuel flow transmitters are designed to transmit data
a. mechanically.
b. utilizing fluid power.
c. electrically.

24. Which of the following causes of aircraft magnetic compass inaccuracies may be compensated for by mechanics?
a. Variation.
b. Magnetic compass current.
c. Deviation.

25. Who is authorized to repair an aircraft instrument?
I. A certified mechanic with an airframe rating.
2. A certificated repairman with an airframe rating.
3. A certificated repair station approved for that class instrument.
4. A certificated airframe repair station.

a. 3 and 4.
b. 3.
c. 1, 2, 3, and 4.

26. What does a reciprocating engine manifold pressure gauge indicate when the engine is not operating?
a. Zero pressure.
b. The differential between the manifold pressure and the atmospheric pressure.
c. The existing atmospheric pressure.

27. The requirements for testing and inspection of instrument static systems required by Section 91.411 are contained in
a. AC 43.13-1A
b. Type Certificate Data Sheets.
c. Part 43, appendix E.

28. Which condition would be most likely to cause excessive vacuum in a vacuum system?
a. Vacuum relief valve improperly adjusted.
b. Vacuum pump overspeed.
c. Vacuum relief valve spring weak.

29. Data transmitted between components in an EFIS are converted into
a. digital signals.
b. analog signals.
c. carrier wave signals.

30. The function of a CRT in an EFIS is to
a. allow the pilot to select the appropriate system configuration for the current flight situation.
b. display alphanumeric data and representations of aircraft instruments.
c. receive and process input signals from aircraft and engine sensors and send the data to the appropriate display.

31. The function of a symbol generator (SG) in an EFIS is to
a. receive and process input signals from aircraft and engine sensors and send the data to the appropriate display.
b. allow the pilot to select the appropriate system configuration for the current flight situation.
c. display alphanumeric data and representations of aircraft instruments.

32. The function of a display controller in an EFIS is to
a. display alphanumeric data and representations of aircraft instruments.
b. receive and process input signals from aircraft and engine sensors and send the data to the appropriate display.
c. allow the pilot to select the appropriate system configuration for the current flight situation.

33. A radar altimeter determines altitude by
a. means of transponder interrogation.
b. receiving signals transmitted from ground radar stations.
c. transmitting a signal and receiving back a reflected signal.

34. A radar altimeter indicates
a. altitude above ground level.
b. altitude above sea level.
c. flight level (pressure) altitude.

35. Resistance-type temperature indicators using Wheatstone bridge or ratiometer circuits may be used to indicate the temperatures of which of the following?
1. Free air.
2. Exhaust gas temperature.
3. Carburetor air.
4. Coolant (engine).
5. Oil temperature.
6. Cylinder head temperature.

a. 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, and 6.
b. 1, 2, 3, and 6.
c. 1, 3,4, and 5.

36. When flags such as NAV, HDG, or GS are displayed on an HSI, the indication is
a. that function is operating.
b. that function is inoperative.
c. to call attention to deviation from the desired setting, or flight path, or heading, etc.

37. Instrument panel shock mounts absorb
a. low frequency, high-amplitude shocks.
b. high G shock loads imposed by turbulent air.
c. high energy impact shocks caused by had landings.

38. Which procedure should you use if you find a vacuum operated instrument glass loose?
a. Mark the case and glass with a slippage mark.
b. Replace the glass.
c. Install another instrument.

39. Which instruments are connected to an aircraft's pitot static system?
1. Vertical speed indicator.
2. Cabin altimeter.
3. Altimeter.
4. Cabin rate-of-change indicator.
5. Airspeed indicator.

a. 1, 2, 3, 4, and 5.
b. 1, 2, and 4.
c. 1, 3, and 5.

40. How many of the following instruments will normally have range markings?
I. Airspeed indicator.
2. Altimeter.
3. Cylinder head temperature gauge.

a. Two.
b. One.
c. Three.

41. How would an airspeed indicator be marked to show the best rate of climb speed (one engine inoperative)?
a. A green arc.
b. A blue radial line.
c. A red radial line.

42. The green arc on an aircraft temperature gauge indicates
a. the instrument is not calibrated.
b. a low, unsafe temperature range.
c. the desirable temperature range.

43. What must be done to an instrument panel that is supported by shock mounts?
a. Bonding straps must be installed across the instrument mounts as a current path.
b. The instrument mounts must be grounded to the aircraft structure as a current path.
c. The instrument mounts must be tightened to the specified torque required by the maintenance manual.

44. What marking color is used to indicate if a cover glass has slipped?
a. Yellow.
b. White.
c. Red.

45. Aircraft instruments should be marked and graduated in accordance with
a. both the aircraft and engine manufacturers' specifications.
b. the instrument manufacturer's specifications.
c. the specific aircraft maintenance or flight manual.

46. Aircraft instrument panels are generally shock mounted to absorb
a. low frequency, high amplitude shocks.
b. high frequency, high amplitude shocks.
c. all vibration.

47. The method of mounting aircraft instruments in their respective panels depends on the
a. instrument manufacturer.
b. design of the instrument panel.
c. design of the instrument case.

48. How is a flangeless instrument case mounted in an instrument panel?
a. By four machine screws which extend through the instrument panel.
b. By an expanding type clamp secured to the back of the panel and tightened by a screw from the front of the instrument panel.
c. BY a metal shelf separate from and located behind the instrument panel.

49. Cases for electrically operated instruments are made of
a. Iron or steel cases.
b. Plastic or composite cases.
c. Aluminum or bakelite cases.

50. When installing an instrument in an aircraft, who is responsible for making sure it is properly marked?
a. The instrument manufacturer.
b. The aircraft owner.
c. The instrument installer.

51. Where may a person look for the information necessary to determine the required markings on an engine instrument?
1. Engine manufacturer's specifications.
2. Aircraft flight manual.
3. Instrument manufacturer's specifications.
4. Aircraft maintenance manual.

a. 2 or 4
b. 2 or 3
c. 1 or 4

52. A certificated mechanic with airframe and powerplant ratings may
a. perform minor repairs to aircraft instruments.
b. not perform repairs to aircraft instruments.
c. perform minor repairs and minor alterations to aircraft instruments.

53. The red radial lines on the face of an engine oil pressure gauge indicates
a. minimum engine safe RPM operating range.
b. minimum precautionary safe operating range.
c. minimum and/ or maximum safe operating limits.

54. A certificated mechanic may perform
a. minor repairs to instruments.
b. instrument overhaul.
c. 100-hour inspections of instruments.

55. An aircraft instrument panel is electrically bonded to the aircraft structure to
a. act as a restraint strap.
b. provide current return paths.
c. aid in the panel installation.

56. How many of the following are controlled by gyroscopes?
1. Attitude indicator.
2. Heading indicator.
3. Turn needle of the turn and slip indicator.

a. Three.
b. One.
c. Two.

57. The lubber line on a directional gyro is used to
a. represent the wings of the aircraft.
b. represent the nose of the aircraft.
c. align the instrument glass in the case.

58. Which instruments are connected to an aircraft's static pressure system only?
1. Vertical speed indicator.
2. Cabin altimeter.
3. Altimeter.
4. Cabin rate-of-change indicator.
5. Airspeed indicator.

a. 2 and 4.
b. 1 and 3.
c. 2,4, and 5.

59. When an unpressurized aircraft's static pressure system is leak checked to comply with the requirements of Section 91.41 1, what aircraft instrument may be used in lieu of a pitot-static system tester?
1. Vertical speed indicator.
2. Cabin altimeter.
3. Altimeter.
4. Cabin rate-of-change indicator.
5. Airspeed indicator.

a. 2 or 4
b. 1 or 5
c. 3

60. If a static pressure system check reveals excessive leakage, the leak(s) may be located by
a. pressurizing the system and adding leak detection dye.
b. isolating portions of the line and testing each portion systematically, starting at the instrument connections.
c. removing and visually inspecting the line segments.

61. When performing the static system leakage check required by Section 91.411, the technician utilizes
a. static pressure.
b. negative pressure
c. positive pressure.

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