Aircraft Lavatory Smoke Detector System and Fire Extinguisher System

Airplanes that have a passenger capacity of 20 or more are equipped with a smoke detector system that monitors the lavatories for smoke. Smoke indications provide a warning light in the cockpit or provide a warning light or audible warning at the lavatory and at flight attendant stations that would be readily detected by a flight attendant. Each lavatory must have a built-in fire extinguisher that discharges automatically. The smoke detector is located in the ceiling of the lavatory. [Figure 1]

Aircraft Fire Protection System
Figure 1. Lavatory smoke detector

Lavatory Smoke Detector System

Refer to Figure 2. The lavatory smoke detector is powered by the 28-volt DC left/right main DC bus. If there is smoke in the sensing chamber of the smoke detector, the alarm LED (red) comes on. The timing circuit makes an intermittent ground. The warning horn and lavatory call light operate intermittently. The smoke detection circuit makes a ground for the relay. The energized relay makes a ground signal for the overhead electronics unit (OEU) in the central monitoring systems (CMS).

Aircraft Fire Protection System
Figure 2. Lavatory smoke detector diagram

This interface gives these indications: lavatory master call light flashes, cabin system control panel (CSCP) and cabin area control panel (CACP) pop-up window shows, and the lavatory call chime operates. Push the lavatory call reset switch or the smoke detector interrupt switch to cancel the smoke indications. If there is still smoke in the lavatory, the alarm LED (red) stays on. All smoke indications go away automatically when the smoke is gone.

Lavatory Fire Extinguisher System

The lavatory compartment is outfitted with a fire extinguisher bottle to extinguish fires in the waste compartment. The fire extinguisher is a bottle with two nozzles. The bottle contains pressurized Halon 1301 or equivalent fire extinguishing agent. When the temperature in the waste compartment reaches approximately 170 °F, the solder that seals the nozzles melt and the Halon is discharged. Weighing the bottle is often the only way to determine if the bottle is empty or full. [Figure 3]

Aircraft Fire Protection System
Figure 3. Lavatory fire extinguishing bottle

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